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Sugar Balancing Pill Effects on Weight Reduction and Diabetes in GLOBESITY Bootcamp for the Obese

Effects of Sugar Balancing on Weight Reduction, Cravings and Diabetes

Authors: Marcus Free MD, Rouzbeh Motiei-Langroudi MD, and Don Juravin (Don Karl Juravin).

Overview

A new ‘yellow’ pill is introduced by our lab which has blood glucose-lowering benefits. Its ingredients include Banaba leaf extract, Bilberry fruit extract, Bitter melon fruit extract, Cinnamon bark extract, Chromium, Fenugreek seed extract, Gymnema Sylvestre leaf extract, Jambolan fruit extract, Pterocarpus marsupium bark extract, Tinospora Cordifolia leaf extract, Vanadyl sulfate, and Zinc.

Banaba Leaf Extract

Banaba leaf extract and its active ingredients (Penta-O-galloyl-glucopyranose (PGG), Lagerstroemia speciosa L. and corosolic acid) exert hypoglycemic (glucose-lowering) effects through various mechanisms, including enhanced cellular uptake of glucose, impaired hydrolysis of sucrose and starches, decreased gluconeogenesis, and the regulation of lipid metabolism, in humans and diabetic animals.

Banaba leaf extract effects on diabetes

  • The active ingredients of Banaba leaf, a southeast Asian tree, with antidiabetic activity are Penta-O-galloyl-glucopyranose (PGG), Lagerstroemia speciosa L., and corosolic acid.
  • Banaba leaf extract exerts beneficial effects on various aspects of glucose and lipid metabolism including enhanced cellular uptake of glucose, impaired hydrolysis of sucrose and starches, decreased gluconeogenesis, and the regulation of lipid metabolism (Stohs 2012).
  • Banaba leaf tract exhibits an insulin-like glucose transport inducing activity and anti-adipogenic properties. The combination of glucose uptake and anti-adipogenesis activity is not found in the current insulin mimetic drugs and indicates a great therapeutic potential of Banaba leaf extract (Klein 2007).
  • Banaba leaf extract decreases blood glucose levels within 60 minutes in human subjects (Miura 2012).
  • Banaba leaf extract in combination with green coffee bean and Moringa Oleifera leaf extracts reduces fat mass and increases fat-free mass and improves body composition index (Stohs 2016).
  • Banaba leaf extract decreases plasma and urinary glucose and serum insulin levels in rats (Kakuda 1996).
  • Banana leaf extract in combination with garlic extract produces a synergistic and dose-dependent increase in glucose uptake in adipocytes and also inhibits sorbitol accumulation and protein glycation (Kesavanarayanan 2012).
  • Banana leaf extract in combination with garlic extract restores the glucose and lipid level to near normal level without a gain in body weight, which is the most commonly encountered side effect with the use of conventional antidiabetic agents (Kesavanarayanan 2012).
  • Banaba leaf extract decreases blood glucose, inhibits lipid peroxidation, and neutralizes reactive oxygen species and free radicals in diabetic mice (Saumya 2011).
  • Banaba leaf extract decreases weight gain, adipose tissue weight, and hemoglobin A1C (HbA1c) in mice (Suzuki 1999).
  • Banaba leaf extract reduces blood glucose, insulin, HbA1c, and triglyceride levels in study animals (Park 2005).

Bilberry Fruit Extract

Bilberry fruit extract has been shown to reduce blood glucose, increase insulin sensitivity, and decrease weight (by ~0.5 lbs per month).

Bilberry fruit extract effects on diabetes

  • The active ingredients of Bilberry fruit (aka Vaccinium myrtillus L.) are anthocyanins.
  • Bilberry fruit extract consumption for 33 to 35 days decreases waist circumference (by 1.2 cm) and weight (0.2 kg) in humans (Lehtonen 2011).
  • Bilberry fruit extract ameliorates hyperglycemia and insulin sensitivity via activation of a specific protein kinase (AMPK) in white adipose tissue, skeletal muscle, and the liver of diabetic mice (Takikawa 2010).

Bitter Melon Extract

Bitter melon extract (Momordica charantia) has antidiabetic benefits as they enhance insulin secretion and its effects at the receptor, reduce glucose absorption from the intestine and increase glucose utilization at muscles and liver. Similar to metformin and acarbose, they improve hyperglycemia (by ~65%) and hemoglobin A1c and prevent and reverse beta-cell destruction in the pancreas. The effects are less pronounced in normoglycemic conditions, avoiding the complication of hypoglycemia.

Bitter melon extract effects on diabetes

  • Bitter melon (Momordica charantia) is a popular fruit used for the treatment of diabetes and related conditions amongst the indigenous populations of Asia, South America, India, and East Africa.
  • Bitter melon extract has potential therapeutic benefits in diabetes and obesity-related metabolic dysfunction both in experimental animals and humans (Alam 2015).
  • Bitter melon extract (2000 mg daily) reduces fructosamine levels after 4 weeks (a measure of hypoglycemic potential) in diabetic individuals (Fuangchan 2011).
  • Bitter melon extract decreases high-fat diet-induced hyperglycemia, hyperleptinemia, blood HbA1c, free fatty acids, and white adipose tissue, and visceral fat weight in mice (Shih 2008, Fernandes 2007).
  • Bitter melon extract normalized the structural abnormalities of peripheral nerves in diabetic mice (Ahmed 2004).
  • Bitter melon extract reduces blood sugar in non-diabetic rats for 4 hours without inducing hypoglycemia (unlike common antidiabetic drugs in which hypoglycemia is common) (Clouatre 2011, Sekar 2005).
  • Bitter melon extract decreases glucose by 63% to 67% in diabetic rats (comparable to the antidiabetic drug metformin). It also lowers blood pressure through an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibiting activity (Clouatre 2011, Ojewole 2006).
  • Bitter melon extract reduces fasting blood glucose by 48% (comparable to the antidiabetic drug glibenclamide) (Virdi 2003).
  • Bitter melon extract improves glucose tolerance in diabetic mice (Leatherdale 1981).
  • Bitter melon extract not only decreases blood glucose and increases serum insulin levels in diabetic rats, but also alleviates the pancreatic damage and increases the islet size, number of β-cells (to almost double), and insulin granules in β-cells (to the level of non-diabetic animals), resulting in renewal and recovery of pancreatic β-cells (Abdollahi 2011, Hafizur 2011, Singh 2007a, Ahmed 1998).
  • Bitter melon extract decreases oxidative stress in pancreatic beta cells and liver and renal cells of diabetic rats, leading to decreased cell injury (Sathishsekar 2005a, Sathishsekar 2005b).
  • Bitter melon extract not only controls blood glucose levels but also has antioxidant potential to protect vital organs such as the heart and kidney against damage caused due to diabetes-induced oxidative stress (Tripathi 2010).
  • The combination of Bitter melon extract and a low dose of glimepiride shows antihyperglycemic activities without creating severe hypoglycemia in rats, suggesting it can be used as complementary medicine to treat the diabetic population by significantly reducing the dose of standard drugs (Yadav 2010).

Mechanism of action of bitter melon extract

  • Bitter melon extract decreases blood glucose levels in normal and diabetic mice by targeting insulin receptors, stimulating the insulin receptor-downstream pathway, and subsequently displaying hypoglycemic activity (Lo 2013, Yibchok-anun 2006, Baldwa 1977).
  • Bitter melon extract decreases blood glucose level by increasing insulin secretion (by 2 folds) (Kesavanarayanan 2011, Yibchok-anun 2006).
  • Bitter melon extract decreases blood glucose levels by decreasing insulin resistance through increasing glucose transporters in muscle cells (Miura 2001).
  • Bitter melon extract reduces glucose absorption by the intestine and stimulates glucose uptake by muscles and adipocytes (fat cells) of diabetic mice (Burnett 2015, Yibchok-anun 2006, Ahmed 2004).
  • Bitter melon extract inhibits the activity of α-amylase and α-glucosidase by 66% to 69%, inhibiting glucose absorption through the intestine (similar to acarbose) (Poovitha 2016).
  • Bitter melon extract decreases blood glucose levels by increased glucose utilization in the liver (Sarkar 1996).

Cinnamon Bark Extract

Cinnamon bark extract lowers fasting  (by ~40%) and postprandial blood glucose (by ~50% to 75%) through inhibition of alpha-glucosidase and amylase, activation of Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR), and increase of serotonin in the brain.

Cinnamon bark extract effects on diabetes

  • Cinnamon bark extract lowers fasting blood glucose (by ~0.5 mmol/L) in individuals with type 2 diabetes or prediabetes (Davis 2011).
  • Cinnamon bark extract lowers postprandial glucose (by 52% to 78%) (Mohamed Sham Shihabudeen 2011).
  • Cinnamon bark extract lowers blood glucose and lipid levels in rats (Kannappan 2006, Verspohl 2005).
  • Cinnamon bark extract promotes weight loss and lowers fasting blood glucose (by 38.7%) and postprandial blood glucose (Jia 2009).

Cinnamon bark extract effects on diabetes complications

  • Cinnamon bark extract prevents the formation of advanced glycation endproducts, lowering complications in diabetes (Peng 2008).

Mechanism of action of cinnamon bark extract

  • Cinnamon bark extract reversibly inhibits intestinal alpha-glucosidase (similar to the action of the antidiabetic drug acarbose) and pancreatic amylase (Mohamed Sham Shihabudeen 2011, Adisakwattana 2011, Kim 2006).
  • Cinnamon bark extract lowers fasting and postprandial blood glucose levels and rises serum insulin and adiponectin levels in mice through activation of Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) (similar to antidiabetic drugs thiazolidinediones) (Kim 2010).
  • Cinnamon bark extract improves insulin sensitivity in tissues and hepatocytes (liver cells) (Lu 2011, Kim 2006).
  • Cinnamon bark extract decreases food intake along with a concomitant increase in brain serotonin levels in rats after 5 weeks of administration (Bano 2014).

Chromium

Chromium decreases glucose (by 1.8mmol/l) and HbA1C (by 2.1%), and improves insulin sensitivity in a dose-dependent manner. Chromium has been documented to reverse severe glucose intolerance and diabetic neuropathy.

Chromium effects on diabetes

  • Chromium decreases HbA1c (from 8.5% to 6.6%), fasting glucose (by 1.7mmol/l) and two-hour glucose (by 1.8mmol/l) after 2 to 4 months supplementation (Anderson 1997).
  • Chromium (200μg) increases insulin sensitivity in individuals with type 1 or 2 diabetes and also permits reductions in dosages of insulin and/or oral antidiabetic drugs after just 10 days (Chen 1997).
  • Chromium improves glucose, insulin, and HbA1C in a dose-dependant manner (Anderson 2008a, 1998). The mechanism of action involves increased insulin binding, increased insulin receptor number, and increased insulin receptor phosphorylation (Anderson 1998).
  • Chromium improves glycemic control and decreases insulin, cholesterol, and triglyceride levels (Broadhurst 2006). Improved glycemic control makes it easier for diabetics to control their cravings, as well as maintain or reduce weight.

Chromium effects on diabetes complications

  • Chromium deficiency is linked to mature onset diabetes, and supplementation leads to significant improvements in glucose tolerance, insulin, and insulin binding (Anderson 1986). This makes it easier to control blood glucose levels, and therefore reduce the risk of long term complications associated with uncontrolled diabetes.
  • Chromium supplementation at higher levels than recommendations reverses severe neuropathy and glucose intolerance (Jeejeebhoy 1977, Anderson 2008b, Anderson 1998). Chromium increases insulin binding to cells, insulin receptor number, and activates insulin receptor kinase leading to increased insulin sensitivity (Anderson 2008b).

Fenugreek Seed Extract

Fenugreek seed extract (1 g daily) decreases fasting (by 19%) and postprandial (by 14%) blood glucose, insulin resistance (by 19%), and daily fat consumption (by 13% to 17%) through enhancement of insulin secretion, function, and sensitivity. The effects are less pronounced in normoglycemic conditions, avoiding the complication of hypoglycemia.

Fenugreek seed extract effects on diabetes

  • Fenugreek seed extract (aka Trigonella foenum-graecum Linn) (1 g daily for 2 months) decreases fasting blood glucose (by 19%), postprandial glucose (by 14%), insulin resistance (by 19%), and serum triglycerides in diabetic individuals (Gupta 2001).
  • Fenugreek seed extract decreases daily fat consumption (expressed as the ratio fat reported energy intake/total energy expenditure) by 13.3% and insulin/glucose ratio by 16% without changing body weight in overweight individuals in a randomized controlled double-blinded study (Chevassus 2010).
  • Fenugreek seed extract (1176mg daily for 2 weeks) decreases daily fat consumption (by 17.3%) and total energy intake (by 11.7%) without changing body weight in overweight individuals in a randomized controlled double-blinded study (Chevassus 2009).
  • Fenugreek seed extract lowers plasma glucose, insulin, triglycerides, and insulin resistance (by 29%, 58%, 61%, and 75% in non-diabetic and 26%, 48%, 71%, and 50% in diabetic mice, respectively) (Hamza 2012). 
  • Fenugreek seed extract lowers blood glucose levels (by 18.5% in normal and 40% in diabetic rats) (Vats 2002).
  • Fenugreek seed extract, either alone or in combination with  glimepiride (an antidiabetic drug) reduces plasma glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), liver glucose transport, proinflammatory cytokines, pancreatic enzymes and restored depleted glycogen (in muscle and liver) in diabetic mice and rabbits (Joshi 2015, Puri 2012).
  • Fenugreek seed extract decreases blood glucose in diabetic mice compared to the antidiabetic drugs insulin, glimepiride, and glipizide (Swaroop 2014, Mowla 2009, Xue 2007).
  • Fenugreek seed extract improves glucose tolerance without reducing fasting blood glucose in prediabetic rabbits and reduces glucose tolerance and fasting blood glucose in diabetic animals, suggesting the lack of hypoglycemia in risk in near normal animals, and the effects are superior to the antidiabetic drug tolbutamide (Moorthy 2010, Ali 1995).
  • The combination of Fenugreek seed extract and a low dose of glimepiride shows antihyperglycemic activities without creating severe hypoglycemia in rats, suggesting it can be used as complementary medicine to treat the diabetic population by significantly reducing the dose of standard drugs (Yadav 2010).

Fenugreek seed extract effects on diabetes complications

  • Fenugreek seed extract protects kidney function in diabetic rats through its antioxidant activity (Xue 2011).
  • Fenugreek seed extract reduces body weight gain, white adipose tissue weight, adiposity index, blood glucose, serum insulin, leptin, blood lipids (low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and very low density lipoprotein cholesterol), and cardiac risk indexes (atherogenic index and coronary risk index) (Kumar 2016a).
  • Fenugreek seed extract not only controls blood glucose levels, but also have antioxidant potential to protect vital organs such as the heart, kidney, and eyes against damage caused due to diabetes-induced oxidative stress (Tripathi 2010, Vats 2004).

Mechanism of action of fenugreek seed extract

  • Fenugreek seed extract corrects metabolic alterations associated with diabetes by exhibiting insulin-like properties (Vijayakumar 2008).
  • Fenugreek seed extract enhances insulin signaling and gene expression in liver and fat cells and increases glucose uptake (Naicker 2016, Kannappan 2009, Vijayakumar 2005).
  • Fenugreek seed extract enhances insulin secretion from the pancreas and increases insulin sensitivity in tissues (Puri 2002).
  • Fenugreek seed extract inhibits glucose uptake by intestinal cells and antagonizes glucagon activity on liver cells (Al-Habori 2001).

Gymnema Sylvestre Leaf Extract

Gymnema sylvestre leaf extract (500mg once to twice daily) decreases blood glucose (by 37%), HbA1c, body weight, and food intake and increases insulin levels. It enhances insulin secretion and inhibits glucose uptake by intestinal cells.

Gymnema sylvestre leaf extract effects on diabetes

  • Gymnema sylvestre leaf extract has antiobesity and antidiabetic properties, decreases body weight and inhibits glucose absorption based on the results of a systematic review (Puthuraju 2014).
  • Gymnema sylvestre leaf extract (500mg twice daily) reduces glucose by 37%, triglycerides by 5%, cholesterol by 13%, and low-density lipoproteins (LDL) by 19% in diabetic individuals (Li 2015).
  • Gymnema sylvestre (500mg daily for 3 months) reduces fasting and postprandial blood glucose, glycated hemoglobin, polyphagia, and fatigue in diabetic individuals (Kumar 2010).
  • Gymnema sylvestre (400mg daily for 18 to 20 months) supplemented with the conventional oral drugs reduces blood glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin and helps to decrease the dosage or even stop the conventional drug (Baskaran 1990).
  • Gymnema sylvestre (1 g daily for 2 months) increases insulin and C-peptide and decreases fasting and postprandial blood glucose (Al-Romaiyan 2010).
  • The combination of Gymnema sylvestre leaf extract and a low dose of glimepiride shows antihyperglycemic activities without creating severe hypoglycemia in rats, suggesting it can be used as complementary medicine to treat the diabetic population by significantly reducing the dose of standard drugs (Yadav 2010).
  • Gymnema sylvestre reduces serum lipids, insulin, glucose, apolipoprotein B, arterial blood pressure, body weight, and body mass index, and organ weights and increases the HDL-cholesterol, apolipoprotein A1, and antioxidant enzymes levels in liver tissue in rats. It also decreases leptin, resulting in satiety and decreased food intake (Kim 2016, Pothuraju 2016, Kumar 2013, Bhansali 2013, Kumar 2012, Reddy 2012).
  • Gymnema sylvestre reduces blood glucose and has antioxidant activity in diabetic rats (Kang 2012, Okabayashi 1990).

Gymnema sylvestre leaf extract effects on diabetes complications

  • Gymnema sylvestre reduces blood glucose in normal and diabetic rats, and also urea, uric acid, and creatinine levels in diabetic rats (Sathya 2008).
  • Gymnema sylvestre exerts neuroprotective effects in diabetic mice through the activation of inflammatory molecules and oxidative stress mediators (Fatani 2015).
  • Gymnema sylvestre protects against nephropathy, retinopathy, and angiopathy in diabetics (Shanmugasundaram 1988).

Mechanism of action of gymnema sylvestre leaf extract

  • Gymnema sylvestre leaf extract increases insulin secretion from the pancreas in mice (Al-Romaiyan 2013, Sugihara 2000).
  • Gymnema sylvestre inhibits glucose transportation at gastrointestinal epithelial cells (Wang 2014).
  • Gymnema sylvestre suppresses the elevation of blood glucose level by inhibiting glucose uptake in the intestine (Shimizu 1997a, Shimizu 1997b).
  • Gymnema sylvestre enhances endogenous insulin in diabetic individuals, possibly by regeneration and revitalization of the residual pancreatic beta cells (Shanmugasundaram 1990a, Shanmugasundaram 1990b, Baskaran 1990, Shanmugasundaram 1988).

Jambolan Fruit Extract

Jambolan fruit extract decreases body weight and fasting blood glucose (by 38% to 66%) and increases plasma insulin (by 16% to 26%) in diabetic animals. It also improves liver and kidney function in diabetics. It exerts its effects through the enhancement of insulin secretion and regeneration of pancreas cells. 

Jambolan fruit extract effects on diabetes

  • Jambolan fruit extract (aka Eugenia jambolana and Syzygium cumini L.) decreases fasting blood glucose by 21% to 24% after a single dose and 38% to 48% after 1 to 2 weeks and increases plasma insulin by 24% to 26% in diabetic rabbits (Sharma 2006, Akhtar 2011).
  • Jambolan fruit extract increases insulin release (by 16%) and HDL (by 21% to 34%) and decreases LDL (by 27% to 29%) and triglycerides (by 35% to 37%) in diabetic rats (Sharma 2008).
  • Jambolan fruit extract decreases blood glucose (by 66%), glycosylated hemoglobin (by 34%), urea (by 47%), total cholesterol (by 36%), and triglycerides (by 27%) and increases high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (by 104%) in diabetic mice (Krishnasamy 2016).
  • Jambolan fruit extract decreases blood glucose by 59% to 83% after a single dose and decreases blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, total cholesterol, triglycerides, liver enzymes, urea, and creatinine and increases plasma insulin in diabetic mice after chronic use and the effects are more prominent than glibenclamide (Shahreen 2011, Kasetti 2010, Ravi 2004).
  • Jambolan fruit extract improves fasting blood glucose, body weight, blood urea and creatinine levels, and microalbuminuria (Tanwar 2010).
  • Jambolan fruit extract decreases biomarkers for oxidative stress, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and increases insulin and glucose transporters (GLUT2) in hyperglycemic mice (Samadder 2011).
  • Jambolan fruit extract decreases blood glucose in diabetic rats (Rao 2001) and the effects last for 15 days after cessation of the drug (Singh 2007b).
  • The combination of Jambolan fruit extract and a low dose of glimepiride shows antihyperglycemic activities without creating severe hypoglycemia in rats, suggesting it can be used as complementary medicine to treat the diabetic population by significantly reducing the dose of standard drugs (Yadav 2010).

Jambolan fruit extract effects on diabetes complications

  • Jambolan fruit extract protects against gastric ulcers in diabetic mice (Chaturvedi 2009).
  • Jambolan fruit extract protects against brain tissue damage in diabetic mice (Stanely Mainzen Prince 2003).
  • Jambolan fruit extract for 1 month improves blood glucose, serum lipid profile, apolipoproteins, and endothelial dysfunction parameters, resulting in protective effects on hyperglycemia-induced atherosclerosis (Tanwar 2011).
  • Jambolan fruit extract possesses nephroprotective activity (Tanwar 2010).

Mechanism of action of jambolan fruit extract

  • Jambolan fruit extract exerts its antidiabetic effects through the enhancement of insulin secretion and inhibition of insulinase activity in the liver and kidney (Sanches 2016, Achrekar 1991).
  • Jambolan fruit extract enhances endogenous insulin in diabetics by regeneration and revitalization of the residual pancreatic beta cells (Krishnasamy 2016, Sharma 2012, Singh 2007b).
  • Jambolan fruit extract upregulates peroxisome proliferators-activated (PPAR) receptors by 3 to 4 folds) (Sharma 2012, Sharma 2008).

Pterocarpus Marsupium Bark Extract

Pterocarpus marsupium bark extract decreases blood glucose and insulin peaks, which may be helpful in the control of cravings.

Pterocarpus marsupium bark extract effects on diabetes

  • Pterocarpus marsupium bark extract reduces blood glucose and hyperinsulinemia in diabetic rats after 1 month (Grover 2005).
  • Pterocarpus marsupium bark extract reduces postprandial blood glucose (by 15.2%) and blood glucose level after 3 weeks of consumption (by 58%) in diabetic rats (Vats 2002).
  • Pterocarpus marsupium bark extract reduces plasma glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, alkaline phosphatase, SGOT and SGPT in diabetic rats (Dhanabal 2006).

Pterocarpus marsupium bark extract effects on diabetes complications

  • Pterocarpus marsupium bark extract reduces lens opacity in diabetic rats, preventing cataract formation (Vats 2004).

Tinospora Cordifolia Leaf Extract

Tinospora cordifolia leaf extract decreases blood glucose through alpha-glucosidase inhibition.

  • Tinospora cordifolia leaf extract decreases blood glucose through its alpha-glucosidase inhibitor activity similar to the antidiabetic drug acarbose (Sengupta 2009).

Vanadyl Sulfate

Vanadyl sulfate decreases blood glucose (by 20%) and food intake through the preservation of insulin secretion, reduction in hepatic glucose production, enhanced insulin sensitivity, pancreatic beta cell regeneration, and improved muscle glucose uptake. It helps to decrease insulin dose in diabetics and the effects continue after drug cessation.

Vanadyl sulfate effects on diabetes

  • Vanadyl sulfate (100mg daily for 3 weeks) decreases fasting plasma glucose (by 1.7 mmol/l) and HbA1c and increases insulin sensitivity (by 82%) in diabetic individuals (Halberstam 1996).
  • Vanadyl sulfate (150mg daily for 6 weeks) decreases fasting plasma glucose (by 20%), HbA1c (by 6%), total cholesterol (by 9%), and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (by 8.5%) and increases insulin-mediated glucose disposal (by 19%) in diabetic individuals (Cusi 2001, Goldfine 2000).
  • Vanadyl sulfate (100mg daily for 3 weeks) decreases fasting plasma glucose (from 210 mg/dl to 181 mg/dl) and HbA1c (from 9.6 to 8.8) (Cohen 1995).
  • Vanadyl sulfate (50 mg twice daily for 1 month) decreases fasting glucose by 20% (from 9.3 mmol/L to 7.4), with preserved benefits for 1 month after cessation of the drug (Boden 1996).
  • Vanadyl sulfate decreases blood glucose levels, HbA1c, hyperphagia, and polydipsia, restores insulinemia, and improves insulin sensitivity in diabetic animals (Missaoui 2014, Karmaker 2008).
  • Vanadyl sulfate coadministration with insulin in diabetic rats results in a decrease of insulin dose to 8% of initial dose) (Dehghani 1997).
  • Vanadyl sulfate decreases hypothalamic neuropeptide Y in diabetic but not normal mice, decreasing food intake (Liu 2001).
  • Vanadyl sulfate decreases weight, plasma glucose, triglyceride, cholesterol, and food and water intake in diabetic rats (Venkatesan 1991).
  • Vanadyl sulfate beneficial effects on glucose homeostasis last long, even after cessation of drug use in rats (Cam 1995, Dai 1994b, Pederson 1989, Ramanadham 1989b).
  • Vanadyl sulfate is effective not only in treating diabetes in animals but also in preventing diabetes onset (Sakurai 2002).

Vanadyl sulfate effects on diabetes complications

  • Vanadyl sulfate decreases degenerative changes in diabetic rats (Yanardag 2003).
  • Vanadyl sulfate exerted antioxidant effects which prevent brain damage caused in diabetic rats (Yanardag 2006).
  • Vanadyl sulfate prevents cataract formation in diabetic animals (Dai 1994b). 

Mechanism of action of vanadyl sulfate

  • Vanadyl sulfate induces beta cells proliferation and regeneration and prevents their atrophy in diabetic rats (Missaoui 2014, Mohammadi 2014, Ahmadi 2010, Bolkent 2005).
  • Vanadyl sulfate diminishes the diabetic state in rats by substituting for or enhancing the effects of endogenous insulin (Shafrir 2001, Dehghani 1997, Ramanadham 1989a).
  • Vanadyl sulfate improves hepatic and peripheral insulin sensitivity (Cohen 1995).
  • Vanadyl sulfate augments peripheral glucose utilization (Venkatesan 1991).

Zinc

Zinc reduces fasting glucose and HbA1c in diabetic individuals as it enhances insulin synthesis, secretion, and activity facilitates glucose catabolism and modulates glucose metabolizing enzymes in the gastrointestinal tract.

Zinc effects on diabetes

  • Zinc supplementation reduces fasting glucose and HbA1c in diabetic individuals (Capdor 2013, Ruz 2013).
  • Lower serum zinc levels are associated with higher HbA1c levels and poorer diabetes control in diabetic individuals (Lin 2014, Viktorinova 2009).
  • Zinc supplementation helps in the prevention and treatment of both types of diabetes, including complications of the disease (Chimienti 2013, Jansen 2009).
  • Zinc supplementation help to prevent diabetes and diabetic complications, as chronic low intake of zinc is associated with the increased risk of diabetes (Miao 2013).
  • Zinc supplementation ameliorates glycemic control in type 1 and 2 diabetes (Jansen 2009).

Zinc effects on diabetes complications

  • Low serum zinc level increases the risk of myocardial infarction and cardiovascular disease in diabetics; therefore, zinc supplementation helps to reduce the risk of heart diseases in diabetics (Soinio 2007).

Mechanism of action of zinc

  • Zinc facilitates glucose catabolism, enhances insulin activity, stimulates lipogenesis, and modulates glucose metabolizing enzymes in the gastrointestinal tract (Mwiti Kibiti 2015).
  • Zinc plays an important role in beta cell function, insulin action, glucose homeostasis, and the pathogenesis of diabetes (both type 1 and 2) and its complications (Ranasinghe 2015).
  • Zinc influences insulin synthesis, maturation and secretion, and subsequent glucose metabolism (Huang 2014).
  • Zinc affects pancreatic beta cell function, including insulin synthesis and secretion (Chimienti 2013).
  • Zinc exerts insulin-mimetic and antidiabetic effects by enhancing glucose transport and glycogen and lipid synthesis and inhibiting gluconeogenesis and lipolysis. It also activates several key components of the insulin signaling pathways (Vardatsikos 2013).
  • Zinc exerts insulin-like effects and prevents beta-cell inflammation leading to cell death in the course of the disease (Jansen 2009).

Safety and Side effects

  • Bitter melon extract may cause convulsions in children, headache in human adults and reduced fertility, a favism-like syndrome, and hepatotoxicity in animals (Basch 2003).
  • Chromium may cause palpitations, sleep disturbances, headaches, depression, anxiety, or allergic reactions.
  • Vanadyl sulfate only causes mild temporary diarrhea after long-term use and is generally safe otherwise (Soveid 2013, Thompson 2009, Dai 1994a).
  • No adverse effects have been observed or reported in animal studies or controlled human clinical trials due to Banaba leaf extract consumption (Stohs 2012).
  • No adverse effects have been reported for Fenugreek seed extract (Swaroop 2014, Mowla 2009, Flammang 2004).
  • No adverse effects have been reported for Gymnema sylvestre leaf extract (Ogawa 2004).
  • Bilberry fruit, Cinnamon bark, Jambolan fruit, Pterocarpus marsupium bark, Tinospora cordifolia leaf extracts, and zinc have no known side effects in the routine doses.

Cautions

  • Diabetes: All ingredients of the yellow pill lower blood sugar and taking them along with diabetes medications might cause blood sugar to go too low. Monitor blood sugar closely.
  • Surgery: All ingredients of the yellow pill lower blood glucose levels, which could interfere with blood sugar control during and after surgery. Stop taking them at least 2 weeks before a scheduled surgery.
  • Glucose 6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency (favism): Patients with the disorder should better avoid the pills due to reports of favism like syndrome in animals after Bitter melon extract use.
  • Depression, anxiety, or schizophrenia: Chromium in the yellow pills might affect brain chemistry and make these conditions worse. Patients with these conditions should consult a physician before use.

References

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  2. Adisakwattana, S., Lerdsuwankij, O., Poputtachai, U., et al. (2011). Inhibitory activity of cinnamon bark species and their combination effect with acarbose against intestinal α-glucosidase and pancreatic α-amylase. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition [online], 66 (2), pp. 143-8. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21538147 [Accessed 21.10.2016].
  3. Ahmadi, S., Karimian, S., Sotoudeh, M., et al, (2010). Pancreatic islet beta cell protective effect of oral vanadyl sulphate in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats, an ultrastructure study. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences [online], . 2010 Dec 1;13(23):1135-40. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21313890 [Accessed 8.12.2016].
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Footnote

This research was sponsored by GLOBESITY FOUNDATION (nonprofit organization) and managed by Don Juravin. GLOBESITY Bootcamp for the obese is part of GLOBESITY FOUNDATION which helps obese with 70 to 400 lbs excess fat to adopt a healthy lifestyle and thereby achieve a healthy weight.