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Propionate Effects on Weight Reduction, Cravings and Diabetes in GLOBESITY Bootcamp for the Obese

Effects of Propionate on Weight Reduction Cravings and Diabetes

Authors: Marcus Free MD, Rouzbeh Motiei-Langroudi MD, and Don Juravin (Don Karl Juravin).

Abstract (Research Summary)

  • Propionate ingestion (10 g of inulin-propionate ester over 24 weeks) reduces energy intake and weight (Chambers 2015, Lin 2012).
  • Propionate produced in the gut decreases appetite, regulates adipogenesis (fat synthesis), and adipokine release, resulting in weight loss (Arora 2011).
  • Propionate produced in the gut decreases adipose tissue inflammation and fat accumulation and increases leptin, resulting in decreased appetite and weight loss (Kasubuchi 2015, Al-Lahham 2012).
  • Propionate-rich sourdough bread decreases the desire for subsequent sweet ingestion (Darzi 2012).
  • Propionate increases insulin sensitivity in obese individuals (Chambers 2015, Al-Lahham 2012, Canfora 2015).

Overview

Propionate is a short-chain fatty acid produced by the colonic microbiota as a result of the fermentation of dietary fibers. Propionate may play an important role in weight control through decreasing adipose tissue inflammation, appetite, and energy intake (Chambers 2015, Corfe 2015, Arora 2011).

Propionate Effects on Weight Reduction

Propionate produced in the gut as a result of bacterial fermentation reduces energy intake and appetite, regulates adipogenesis, and reduces adipose tissue inflammation, finally resulting in weight loss.

  • Propionate ingestion (10 g of inulin-propionate ester over 24 weeks) increases postprandial plasma PYY and GLP-1, reducing energy intake and resulting in weight loss and intra-abdominal adipose tissue reduction in obese individuals (Chambers 2015).
  • Propionate produced by gut microbiota reduces food intake (Lin 2012).
  • Propionate produced in the gut decreases appetite, regulates adipogenesis (fat synthesis), and adipokine release, resulting in weight loss (Arora 2011).
  • Propionate produced in the gut decreases adipose tissue inflammation and fat accumulation and increases leptin, resulting in decreased appetite and weight loss (Kasubuchi 2015).
  • Propionate produced in the gut reduces obesity-associated adipose tissue inflammation and increases lipogenesis and glucose uptake, resulting in weight loss (Al-Lahham 2012).
  • Propionate reduces fatty acids content in liver and plasma, reduces food intake, exerts immunosuppressive actions (thus reducing adipose tissue inflammation), and improves insulin sensitivity, preventing weight gain and obesity (Al-Lahham 2010a).
  • Propionate produced in the gut regulates adipose tissue, skeletal muscle, and liver tissue function and improves glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity, resulting in weight control (Canfora 2015).
  • Propionate increases secretion of the satiety hormone leptin, decreasing appetite, and food intake (Al-Lahham 2010b).
  • Propionate induces secretion of leptin, reducing appetite and thus, weight (Roelofsen 2010).

Propionate Effects on Cravings

Propionate produced in the gut as a result of bacterial fermentation reduces cravings for carbohydrates.

  • Propionate-rich sourdough bread decreases the desire for subsequent sweet ingestion (Darzi 2012).

Propionate Effects on Diabetes

Propionate produced in the gut as a result of bacterial fermentation increases insulin and insulin sensitivity, resulting in prevention and better control of diabetes.

  • Propionate increases insulin sensitivity in obese individuals (Chambers 2015).
  • Propionate-rich sourdough bread increases plasma insulin (Darzi 2012).
  • Propionate improves insulin sensitivity, preventing diabetes (Al-Lahham 2012).
  • Propionate produced in the gut improves glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity, resulting in better diabetes control (Canfora 2015).
  • Propionate reduces obesity-related proinflammatory state of the adipose tissue and exerts anti-inflammatory effects in humans, reducing insulin resistance and preventing diabetes (Roelofsen 2010).

References

  1. Al-Lahham, S., Roelofsen, H., Rezaee, F., et al. (2012). Propionic acid affects immune status and metabolism in adipose tissue from overweight subjects. European Journal of Clinical Investigation [online], 42 (4), pp. 357-64. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21913915 [Accessed 26.08.2016].
  2. Al-Lahham, S., Peppelenbosch, M., Roelofsen, H., et al. (2010a). Biological effects of propionic acid in humans; metabolism, potential applications and underlying mechanisms. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta [online], 1801 (11), pp. 1175-83. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20691280 [Accessed 26.08.2016].
  3. Al-Lahham, S., Roelofsen, H., Priebe, M., et al. (2010b). Regulation of adipokine production in human adipose tissue by propionic acid. European Journal of Clinical Investigation [online], 40 (5), pp. 401-7. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20353437 [Accessed 29.08.2016].
  4. Arora, T., Sharma, R., Frost, G. (2011). Propionate. Anti-obesity and satiety enhancing factor? Appetite [online], 56 (2), pp. 511-5. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21255628 [Accessed 26.08.2016].
  5. Canfora, E., Jocken, J., Blaak, E. (2015). Short-chain fatty acids in control of body weight and insulin sensitivity. Nature Reviews Endocrinology [online], 11 (10), pp. 577-91. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26260141 [Accessed 29.08.2016].
  6. Chambers, E., Viardot, A., Psichas, A., et al. (2015). Effects of targeted delivery of propionate to the human colon on appetite regulation, body weight maintenance and adiposity in overweight adults. Gut [online], 64 (11), pp. 1744-54. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4680171/ [Accessed 26.08.2016].
  7. Corfe, B., Harden, C., Bull, M., et al. (2015). The multifactorial interplay of diet, the microbiome and appetite control: current knowledge and future challenges. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society [online], 74 (3), pp.235-44. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25612669 [Accessed 26.08.2016].
  8. Darzi, J., Frost, G., Robertson, M. (2012). Effects of a novel propionate-rich sourdough bread on appetite and food intake. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition [online], 66 (7), pp. 789-94. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22293570 [Accessed 08.26.2016].
  9. Kasubuchi, M., Hasegawa, S., Hiramatsu, T., et al. (2015). Dietary gut microbial metabolites, short-chain fatty acids, and host metabolic regulation. Nutrients [online], 7 (4), pp. 2839-49. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4425176/ [Accessed 26.08.2016].
  10. Lin, H., Frassetto, A., Kowalik, E., et al. (2012). Butyrate and propionate protect against diet-induced obesity and regulate gut hormones via free fatty acid receptor 3-independent mechanisms. PLoS One [online], 7(4), pp. 35240. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3323649/ [Accessed 26.08.2016].
  11. Roelofsen, H., Priebe, M., Vonk, R. (2010). The interaction of short-chain fatty acids with adipose tissue: relevance for prevention of type 2 diabetes. Beneficial Microbes [online], 1 (4), pp. 433-7. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21831781 [Accessed 29.08.2016].

Footnote

This research was sponsored by GLOBESITY FOUNDATION (nonprofit organization) and managed by Don Juravin. GLOBESITY Bootcamp for the obese is part of GLOBESITY FOUNDATION which helps obese with 70 to 400 lbs excess fat to adopt a healthy lifestyle and thereby achieve a healthy weight.

Tags: propionate, weight reduction, GLOBESITY FOUNDATION, weight loss, cravings, diabetes, healthy weight