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Magnesium Effects on Weight Reduction, Cravings and Diabetes in GLOBESITY Bootcamp for the Obese

Effects of Magnesium on Weight Reduction

Authors: Marcus Free MD, Rouzbeh Motiei-Langroudi MD, Waqar Ahmad PhD, Kelly Daly RDN, and Don Juravin (Don Karl Juravin).

Abstract (Research Summary)

  • Magnesium deficiency is associated with type 2 diabetes and obesity (Lecube 2012, Psaltopoulou 2010, Schulze 2007, Guerrero-Romero 2002).
  • Magnesium supplementation results in improved glucose tolerance and decreased cravings (Abraham 1983).
  • Magnesium supplementation promotes weight loss in obese patients (Champagne 2008).
  • Magnesium supplementation decreases fasting plasma glucose, HbA1c, and BMI in diabetic patients (Lecube 2012).
  • Magnesium increases the synthesis and sensitivity of serotonin which decreases cravings in obese individuals (Eby 2010).

Magnesium Effects on Weight Reduction

Decreased magnesium levels are associated with obesity. Magnesium supplementation in obese patients promotes weight loss and prevents complications of weight-loss regimens. 

  • Magnesium increase is associated with BMI decrease in obese individuals (Lecube 2012).
  • Hypomagnesemia (decreased magnesium levels in the blood) is associated with obesity and adequate magnesium intake can promote weight loss (Champagne 2008).
  • Magnesium deficiency is associated with obesity, as well as it is also a complication of restricted weight-loss regimens. Therefore, magnesium supplementation should be a part of weight-loss diets (German 2015, de Leeuw 1987).

Magnesium Effects on Cravings

Magnesium supplementation reduces cravings as a result of improved glucose control and increased synthesis and sensitivity of serotonin. 

  • Magnesium supplementation results in improved glucose tolerance and decreased cravings (Abraham 1983).
  • Magnesium increases the synthesis and sensitivity of serotonin which decreases cravings in obese individuals (Eby 2010).

Magnesium Effects on Diabetes

Decreased magnesium levels increase the risk of diabetes. In contrast, magnesium supplementation in diabetic patients decreases fasting plasma glucose, HbA1c, and weight and therefore helps to control diabetes.

  • Magnesium supplementation in standard diabetes treatment results in a reduction in glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol, weight, and waist circumference (Miranda-Massari 2015).
  • Magnesium is associated with decreases in fasting plasma glucose, HbA1c, and BMI in diabetics (Lecube 2012). Improved glucose control and decreased BMI are both important factors for controlling diabetes.
  • Magnesium deficiency is associated with increased diabetes risk. Magnesium seems to function at the insulin receptor level to increase the risk of diabetes (Psaltopoulou 2010, Schulze 2007).
  • Magnesium plays a role in the development of diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome. Adequate magnesium intake can help control diabetes and decrease the risk of metabolic syndrome (Konishi 2015, Champagne 2008, Guerrero-Romero 2002).
  • Dietary intake of magnesium is shown to be lower in obese diabetic individuals (Jarvandi 2011).

Benefits, Side Effects, Drug Interactions

Benefits

  • Magnesium is a beneficial treatment for muscular leg cramps (Sills 2002).
  • Magnesium supplementation results in a reduction in triglycerides, cholesterol, and waist circumference (Miranda-Massari 2015).

Safety

Magnesium is Generally Recognized As Safe (GRAS) according to FDA.

Side effects

  • Nausea and vomiting: Magnesium may cause an upset sensation in the stomach and vomiting.
  • Diarrhea: Large amounts of Magnesium intake may result in loose bowel motions.

Drug interactions

  • Antibiotics: Magnesium may decrease the effectiveness of antibiotics.

Caution

  • Diabetes: As Magnesium lowers blood sugar levels, it is important to monitor sugar levels to avoid hypoglycemic episodes.

References

  1. Abraham, G. (1983). Nutritional factors in the etiology of the premenstrual tension syndromes. Journal of Reproductive Medicine [online], 28 (7), pp. 446-64. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6684167 [Accessed 27.05.2016].
  2. Champagne, C. (2008). Magnesium in hypertension, cardiovascular disease, metabolic syndrome, and other conditions: a review. Nutrition in Clinical Practice [online], 23 (2), pp. 142-51. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18390781 [Accessed 27.05.2016].
  3. de Leeuw, I., van Gaal, L., Vanroelen, W. (1987). Magnesium and obesity: effects of treatment on magnesium and other parameters. Magnesium [online], 6 (1), pp. 40-7. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3821174 [Accessed 27.05.2016].
  4. Eby, G., Eby, K. (2010). Magnesium for treatment-resistant depression: a review and hypothesis. Medical hypotheses [online], 74 (4), pp.649-60. Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0306987709007300 [Accessed 02.06.2016].
  5. German, A., Holden, S., Serisier, S. et al. (2015). Assessing the adequacy of essential nutrient intake in obese dogs undergoing energy restriction for weight loss: a cohort study. BMC Veterinary Research [online], 11, pp. 253. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4597434/ [Accessed 27.05.2016].
  6. Guerrero-Romero, F., Rodríguez-Morán, M. (2002). Low serum magnesium levels and metabolic syndrome. Acta Diabetologica [online], 39 (4), pp. 209-13. Available from: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s005920200036 [Accessed 30.05.2016]. 
  7. Jarvandi, S., Gougeon, R., Bader, A., et al. (2011). Differences in food intake among obese and nonobese women and men with type 2 diabetes. The Journal of the American College of Nutrition [online], 30 (4), pp. 225-32. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21917702 [Accessed 27.05.2016].
  8. Konishi, K., Wada, K., Tamura, T., et al. (2015). Dietary magnesium intake and the risk of diabetes in the Japanese community: results from the Takayama study. European Journal of Nutrition. Pp. 1-8. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26689794 [Accessed 27.05.2016].
  9. Lecube, A., Baena-Fustegueras, J., Fort, J. et al. (2012). Diabetes is the main factor accounting for hypomagnesemia in obese subjects. PLoS One [online], 7 (1), pp. e30599. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3265490/ [Accessed 27.05.2016].
  10. Miranda-Massari, J., Gonzalez, M., Fernando, A., et al. (2015). Metabolic Correction as a tool to improve diabetes type 2 management. Boletin de la Asociacion Medica de Puerto Rico [online], 107 (2), pp. 54-9. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26434085 [Accessed 27.05.2016].
  11. Psaltopoulou, T., Ilias, I., Alevizaki, M. (2010). The role of diet and lifestyle in primary, secondary, and tertiary diabetes prevention: a review of meta-analyses. The Review of Diabetic Studies [online], 7 (1), pp. 26-35. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2923378/ [Accessed 27.05.2016].
  12. Schulze, M., Schulz, M., Heidemann, C. et al. (2007). Fiber and magnesium intake and incidence of type 2 diabetes: A prospective study and meta-analysis. Archives of  Internal Medicine [online],167, pp. 956-65. Available from: http://archinte.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?articleid=412391 [Accessed 27.05.2016].
  13. Sills, S., Roffe, C., Crome, P., et al. (2002). Randomised, cross-over, placebo controlled trial of magnesium citrate in the treatment of chronic persistent leg cramps. International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research [online], 8 (5), pp. CR326-30. Available from: http://www.medscimonit.com/abstract/index/idArt/420841/act/3 [Accessed 17.06.2016]. 

Footnote

This research was sponsored by GLOBESITY FOUNDATION (nonprofit organization) and managed by Don Juravin. GLOBESITY Bootcamp for the obese is part of GLOBESITY FOUNDATION which helps obese with 70 to 400 lbs excess fat to adopt a healthy lifestyle and thereby achieve a healthy weight.

Tags: magnesium, weight reduction, GLOBESITY FOUNDATION, weight loss, cravings, diabetes, healthy weight