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Fructus Rubi Effects on Weight Reduction, Cravings and Diabetes in GLOBESITY Bootcamp for the Obese

Effects of Fructus Rubi on Weight Reduction

Authors: Marcus Free MD, Rouzbeh Motiei-Langroudi MD, Waqar Ahmad PhD, Kelly Daly RDN, and Don Juravin (Don Karl Juravin).

Abstract (Research Summary)

  • Fructus Rubi’s active ingredient is Raspberry ketone and is found in red raspberries (Morimoto 2005, Lee 2016), baby kiwis (Garcia 2011), Arabica coffee (Akiyama 2007), and orchid flowers (Keng-Hong 2005).
  • Fructus Rubi supplement decreases body weight (by 2%) and fat mass (by ~8%) and increases leptin (Lopez 2013) over 8 weeks. For an average overweight individual of 118 kg (260 lbs), this is a decrease in 2.4 kg (5.3 lbs) weight and 9.44 kg (21 lbs) fat mass over 8 weeks, or 15.6 kg (34.4 lbs) weight and 61.4 kg (135 lbs) fat mass over a year.
  • Fructus Rubi significantly increases norepinephrine-induced lipolysis (fat burning), thereby preventing obesity and fatty liver (Morimoto 2005).
  • Fructus Rubi (10 µM) increases fatty acid oxidation, suppresses lipid accumulation, and adipocytes differentiation (Park 2015, Park 2010).

Fructus Rubi Effects on Weight Loss

Fructus Rubi decreases body weight (by 2%) and fat mass (by ~8%) due to increased norepinephrine-induced lipolysis and suppresses lipid accumulation. For an average overweight individual of 118 kg (260 lbs), this is a decrease in 2.4 kg (5.3 lbs) weight and 9.44 kg (21 lbs) fat mass.

  • Fructus Rubi supplement decreases body weight (by 2%) and fat mass (by ~8%) and increases leptin (satiety hormone) (Lopez 2013). For an average overweight individual of 118 kg (260 lbs), this is a decrease in 2.4 kg (5.3 lbs) weight and 9.44 kg (21 lbs) fat mass over 8 weeks, or 15.6 kg (34.4 lbs) weight and 61.4 kg (135 lbs) fat mass over a year.
  • Fructus Rubi (concentration of 0.5% to 2%) significantly increases norepinephrine-induced lipolysis (fat burning), thereby preventing and improving obesity and fatty liver (Morimoto 2005).
  • Fructus Rubi (10 µM) increases fatty acid oxidation and suppresses lipid accumulation in adipocytes (Park 2010).
  • Fructus Rubi (10 µM) increases lipolysis (fat burning), causing weight loss (Park 2010, Xie 2013).
  • Fructus Rubi prevents high-fat diet-induced elevation in body weight and increases lipolysis in white adipocytes in male mice (Park 2010).
  • Fructus Rubi increases the synthesis of adiponectin (Park 2010), a hormone often deficient in overweight individuals (Diez 2003, Coppola 2009). Adiponectin is released by fat cells and involved in metabolism and regulation of blood glucose levels, therefore aiding in weight loss and diabetes.
  • Fructus Rubi suppresses adipocyte differentiation, fat accumulation, and the expression of major genes involved in the adipogenesis pathway (Park 2015).

Fructus Rubi Effects on Diabetes

Fructus Rubi increases insulin sensitivity promoting better blood glucose control.

  • Fructus Rubi increases the synthesis of adiponectin (Park 2010), a hormone often deficient in overweight individuals (Diez 2003, Coppola 2009). Adiponectin is released by fat cells and involved in blood glucose metabolism, therefore aiding in diabetes and weight loss.
  • Fructus Rubi increases insulin sensitivity (Wang 2012, Lilli 2011) thereby aiding in glucose control and weight loss.
  • Fructus Rubi improves glucose metabolism and insulin resistance (Xie 2013).
  • Fructus Rubi effectively controls blood glucose levels, protects pancreatic islet β cells, and improves insulin secretion by inhibiting oxidative stress (Xie 2012).

Benefits, Side Effects, Drug Interactions

Benefits

  • Fructus Rubi decreases hepatic triglyceride, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and increases high-density lipoprotein (HDL) (Wang 2012, Xie 2013). These results are strongly correlated with optimal cardiovascular health.
  • Fructus Rubi significantly improves hepatic steatosis secondary to the regulation of the response level to oxidative stress in the liver (Xie 2013).

Safety

Fructus Rubi is Generally Recognized As Safe (GRAS) by the FDA in quantities less than 2mg daily according to the Human Performance Research Center.

Side effects

Fructus Rubi has no known side effects.

Drug interactions

  • Antidiabetic drugs: As both Fructus Rubi and anti-diabetic drugs decrease blood glucose levels, it is important to monitor glucose levels and speak to a physician about decreasing the antidiabetic drugs if required.

Caution

  • Pregnancy and breastfeeding: There is limited research and therefore best to avoid during pregnancy or breastfeeding.
  • Diabetes: As Fructus Rubi lowers blood sugar levels, it is important to monitor sugar levels to avoid hypoglycemic episodes.

References

  1. Akiyama, M., Murakami, K., Hirano, Y., et al. (2008). Characterization of Headspace Aroma Compounds of Freshly Brewed Arabica Coffees and Studies on a Characteristic Aroma Compound of Ethiopian Coffee. Journal of Food Science [online], 73 (5), pp. C335-46. Available from: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1750-3841.2008.00752.x/abstract [Accessed 03.06.2016]. 
  2. Coppola, A., Marfella, R., Coppola, R., et al. (2009). Effect of weight loss on coronary circulation and adiponectin levels in obese women. International Journal of Cardiology [online], 131 (3), pp. 14-6. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18378021 [Accessed 03.06.2016]. 
  3. Diez, J., Iglesias, P. (2003). The role of the novel adipocyte-derived hormone adiponectin in human disease. European Journal of Endocrinology [online], 148 (3), pp. 293-300. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12611609 [Accessed 03.06.2016]. 
  4. Garcia, C., Quek, S., Stevenson, R., et al. (2011). Characterization of the Bound Volatile Extract from Baby Kiwi (Actinidia arguta). Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry [online], 59 (15), pp. 8358-65. Available from: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1750-3841.2007.00447.x/abstract [Accessed 03.06.2016]. 
  5. Keng-Hong, T., Nishida, R. (2005). Synomone Or Kairomone? ? Bulbophyllum Apertum Flower Releases Raspberry Ketone To Attract Bactrocera Fruit Flies. Journal of Chemical Ecology [online], 31 (3), pp. 497-507. Available from: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10886-005-2023-8 [Accessed 03.06.2016]. 
  6. Lee, J. (2016). Further research on the biological activities and the safety of raspberry ketone is needed. NFS Journal [online], 2, pp. 15-8. Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2352364615300493 [Accessed 03.06.2016]. 
  7. Lilli, W., Yan, Z., Xianjun, M., et al. (2011). Experimental study on the mechanism of raspberry ketone on simple obesity and insulin resistance relevant to obesity. Proceedings of 2011 International Conferance on Human Health and Biomedical Engineering [online], pp. 58-68. Available from: http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/login.jsp?tp=&arnumber=6027896&url=http%3A%2F%2Fieeexplore.ieee.org%2Fxpls%2Fabs_all.jsp%3Farnumber%3D6027896 [Accessed 12.06.2016]. 
  8. Lopez, H., Ziegenfuss, T., Hofheins, J., et al. (2013). Eight weeks of supplementation with a multi-ingredient weight loss product enhances body composition, reduces hip and waist girth, and increases energy levels in overweight men and women. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, 10 (1), pp. 22-60. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3639826/#!po=16.6667 [Accessed 05.06.2016].
  9. Morimoto, C., Satoh, Y., Hara., M., et al. (2005). Anti-obese action of raspberry ketone. Life Sciences [online], 77 (2), pp. 194-204. Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0024320505001281 [Accessed 16.05.2016]. 
  10. Park, K. (2010). Raspberry ketone increases both lipolysis and fatty acid oxidation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Planta Medica [online], 76 (15), pp. 1654-8. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20425690 [Accessed 16.05.2016]. 
  11. Park, K. (2015). Raspberry ketone, a naturally occurring phenolic compound, inhibits adipogenic and lipogenic gene expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Pharmaceutical Biology [online], 53 (6), pp. 870-5. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25429790 [Accessed 05.06.2016].
  12. Wang, L., Meng, X., Zhang, F. (2012). Raspberry ketone protects rats fed high-fat diets against nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Journal of Medicinal Food [online], 15 (5), pp. 495-503. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3338106/ [Accessed 05.06.2016]. 
  13. Xie, X., Pang, X., Li, X. (2012). Hypoglycemic effect and mechanism of raspberry ketone on diabetic model mice. Chinese Pharmaceutical Journal [online], 23. Available from: http://en.cnki.com.cn/Article_en/CJFDTOTAL-ZGYX201223009.htm [Accessed 13.06.2016].
  14. Xie, X., Pang, X. (2013). Effects of Fructus Rubi extract on glucose and blood lipid metabolism and protective effects on liver in type 2 diabetic rats. Chinese Journal [online], 03. Available online: http://en.cnki.com.cn/Article_en/CJFDTOTAL-ZCYA201303008.htm [Accessed 13.06.2016]. 

Footnote

This research was sponsored by GLOBESITY FOUNDATION (nonprofit organization) and managed by Don Juravin. GLOBESITY Bootcamp for the obese is part of GLOBESITY FOUNDATION which helps obese with 70 to 400 lbs excess fat to adopt a healthy lifestyle and thereby achieve a healthy weight.

Tags: fructus rubi, weight reduction, GLOBESITY FOUNDATION, weight loss, cravings, diabetes, healthy weight