GLOBESITY FOUNDATION – Healthy Life Bootcamp

Home » Beta Glucan Effects on Weight Reduction, Cravings and Diabetes in GLOBESITY Bootcamp for the Obese

Beta Glucan Effects On Weight Reduction, Cravings And Diabetes in GLOBESITY Bootcamp for the Obese

Beta Glucan Effects On Weight Reduction, Cravings And Diabetes in GLOBESITY Bootcamp for the Obese

Authors: Marcus Free MD, Rouzbeh Motiei-Langroudi MD, Waqar Ahmad PhD, Kelly Daly RDN, and Don Juravin (Don Karl Juravin).

Abstract (Research Summary)

  • Beta Glucan (3 g daily) reduces total cholesterol by 8.9% and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels by 12.1% over 8 weeks (Cicero et al., 2020).
  • Beta Glucan has higher low-density lipoprotein (LDL) lowering effect on women than in men (women: 16.3% (95% CI: 17.8 to 6.7) vs. men: 14.9% (95% CI: 14.1 to 5.9), in younger subjects (16.4% (95% CI: 17.5 to 8.3) vs. older 14.7% (95% CI: 17.1 to 5.2) (Cicero et al., 2020).
  • Beta Glucan causes 2.2 lbs (1 kg) weight loss per month (Khouri et al., 2011).
  • Beta Glucan reduces cravings by balancing responsible hormones, increasing the healthy to unhealthy gut flora ratio and increasing satiety (Khoury, 2011; Slavin, 2013; Cloetens, 2012; Juvonen, 2009; Beck, 2009; JADA, 2008; Slavin, 2007; Dikeman, 2006).
  • Beta Glucan decreases calorie intake in the subsequent meal by greater than 96 calories (Beck, 2009; Vitaglione, 2009). That is about a 19% to 24% reduction in the next meal.
  • Beta Glucan slows the absorption of glucose, improves insulin sensitivity for 2 hours, and promotes lipolysis by 5% to 10% (Slavin, 2013; Cloetens, 2012; Khoury, 2011; Juvonen, 2009; Beck, 2009; JADA, 2008; Slavin, 2007; Dikeman, 2006).
  • Beta Glucan improves postprandial glucose (28% to 62%) and insulin levels (33% to 51%) for 2 hours (Casiraghi, 2006; Jenkins, 2002; Tappy, 1996; Beck, 2009).
  • Beta Glucan increases healthy to unhealthy gut flora ratio by increasing lactobacilli and bifidobacteria and decreasing coliform species and clostridium perfringens (Slavin, 2013; Turunen, 2011; Rosburg, 2010; Snart, 2006).

Overview

Beta Glucan is a soluble dietary fiber found naturally in cereal grains, yeast, and in medicinal mushrooms (cordyceps, reishi, shitake, and maitake). Among its sources, barley has the highest Beta Glucan content. Beta Glucan is a polysaccharide that promotes good health by reducing cholesterol, and controls blood sugar levels. Beta Glucan lowers blood cholesterol by preventing the absorption of cholesterol from food in the stomach and intestines. If injected, Beta Glucan stimulates the immune system by growing chemicals which prevent infection. Beta Glucan also helps with constipation and bowel issues, preserves healthy intestinal bacteria, and helps regulate weight.

Beta Glucan Effects on Weight Reduction

Beta Glucan decreases calorie intake by ~100 calories per meal, promotes fat burning (5% to 10%), restricts absorption of dietary fats and improves insulin sensitivity resulting in better glucose control and weight loss.

  • Beta Glucan supplements (3 g daily) reduces total cholesterol by 8.9% (95% Confidence Interval (CI): 12.6 to 2.3) and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) levels by 12.1% (95% CI: 15.6 to 5.3) over 8 weeks (Cicero et al., 2020).
  • Beta Glucan has higher low-density lipoprotein (LDL) lowering effect on women than in men (women: 16.3% (95% CI: 17.8 to 6.7) vs. men: 14.9% (95% CI: 14.1 to 5.9), in younger subjects (16.4% (95% CI: 17.5 to 8.3) vs. older 14.7% (95% CI: 17.1 to 5.2) (Cicero et al., 2020).
  • >5 g Beta Glucan decreases calorie intake in the subsequent meal by greater than 96 calories (Beck, 2009). Assuming a meal of 400 calories, this is an energy reduction of 24%.
  • Beta Glucan slows the absorption of glucose, improves insulin sensitivity for 2 hours, promotes lipolysis (5% to 10%) by restricting the absorption of dietary fats and lean mass that promote weight loss (Slavin, 2013; Cloetens, 2012; Khoury, 2011; Juvonen, 2009; Beck, 2009; JADA, 2008; Slavin, 2007; Dikeman, 2006).
  • Beta Glucan causes 2.2 lbs (1 kg) weight loss per month (Khouri et al., 2011), or 26.5 lbs (12 kg) per year.
  • Beta Glucan decreases energy intake by 19% and ghrelin levels by 23%. It also decreases postprandial glucose and insulin levels (Vitaglione, 2009).

Beta Glucan Effects on the Healthy Gut Flora

Beta Glucan creates microbiota diversity by significantly increasing the ratio of healthy gut flora. This is proven to be linked to reduced sugar cravings and weight loss.

  • High viscosity Beta Glucan increases the ratio of healthy gut flora by increasing lactobacilli (Snart, 2006). Unhealthy gut flora feed on sugar, therefore, reducing their count in the gut reduces cravings for sugar and carbohydrate rich food, finally exerting desirable effects on weight loss (Slavin, 2013; Gibson, 1995).
  • Beta Glucan consumption significantly decreases coliform species after 30 days and clostridium perfringens after 90 days (unhealthy microbiota), accompanied by reduced bloating and abdominal pain (Turunen, 2011). Unhealthy microbiota feed on sugar, and therefore, reducing their count in the gut reduces cravings for sugar, finally exerting desirable effects on weight loss (Slavin, 2013; Gibson, 1995).
  • Beta Glucan has a protective effect on bifidobacteria (healthy gut flora) (Rosburg, 2010). This is beneficial in creating microbiota diversity as well as improving healthy to unhealthy microbiome ratio, both proven to be linked to weight loss and reduced sugar cravings (Slavin, 2013; Yatsunenko, 2012; Gibson, 1995).
  • Beta Glucan significantly increases healthy gut microbiota (Slavin, 2013; Cloeten, 2012; JADA, 2008).

Beta Glucan Effects on Cravings

Beta Glucan reduces cravings by increasing the viscosity of the digestive tract and by improving the amount of healthy gut flora. The increase in healthy gut flora decreases the consumption of sugary food, satiety setpoint and cravings favoring decreased food intake.

  • In a 50 g carbohydrate portion, each gram of Beta Glucan reduces the glycemic index of food by 4 units that can improves insulin sensitivity in glucose intolerant and obese patients, which causes cravings (Jenkins, 2002).
  • Beta Glucan improves glucose metabolism (2.2 g to 5.7 g per meal) that reduces glucose and insulin secretion up to 2 hours thus decreasing cravings associated with glucose intolerance and insulin resistance (Beck, 2009).
  • Beta Glucan improves the healthy gut flora which helps in the growth of healthy species such as lactobacilli and bifidobacteria (Snart, 2006) and inhibits the growth of unhealthy species like coliform and clostridium perfringens that consume carbohydrates obtained from sweet and sugary food items leading to cravings (Slavin, 2013; Gibson, 1995; Turunen, 2011).
  • Beta Glucan improves satiety by increasing gastric transit time and viscosity of food which inhibits the release of ghrelin which causes cravings (Tappy, 1996).
  • Beta Glucan reduces cravings by improving the balance of hormones, healthy to unhealthy gut flora and increasing satiety that altogether promote weight loss (Khoury, 2011; Slavin, 2013; Cloetens, 2012; Juvonen, 2009; Beck, 2009; JADA, 2008; Slavin, 2007; Dikeman, 2006).

Beta Glucan Effects on Diabetes

Beta Glucan reduces the glycemic index of food and slows the absorption of glucose. This in turn reduces postprandial glucose (33% to 62%) and insulin (33% to 51%) levels, making it easier to control blood glucose levels and avoid complications caused by hyperglycemia.

  • The addition of 4 g to 8.4 g of Beta Glucan added to a cereal meal reduced glycemia by 33% to 62% and subsequent insulin spikes by 33% to 51% (Tappy, 1996).
  • Beta Glucan slows the release of glucose into the bloodstream by inhibiting its absorption from the gut, resulting in increased satiety and decreased ghrelin (hunger hormone) (Slavin, 2013; Cloetens, 2012; Juvonen, 2009; Beck, 2009; JADA, 2008; Slavin, 2007; Dikeman, 2006).
  • Beta Glucan slows the rate of glucose metabolism (Cloetens, 2012) making it easier for diabetics to control their disease.
  • 14.5 g Beta Glucan significantly lowers concentrations of glucose and insulin after meals (Braaten, 1991; Ostman, 2006).
  • Beta Glucan reduces the maximum rise of blood glucose levels secondary to its high viscosity (Paquin, 2013).
  • Beta Glucan (2.2 g to 5.7 g per meal) decreases insulin secretion over 2 hours (Beck, 2009), resulting in better glycemic control for diabetics and promoting weight loss.
  • Beta Glucan decreases plasma glucose and insulin levels until 4 hours after meals (Bourdon, 1999).
  • Beta Glucan reduces postprandial glucose by 28% and insulin by 26% (Casiraghi, 2006).
  • Beta Glucan (4 g to 8 g) decreases postprandial blood glucose and glycemic index (by 43% to 47%) 45 to 60 minutes after a meal (Thondre, 2009).

Benefits, Side Effects, Interactions

Benefits

  • Beta Glucan has antitumor properties and enhances the destruction or killing process of cancer cells (Akramiene, 2007).
  • Beta Glucan improves immune response by increasing the activity of macrophages and lymphocytes (Chan, 2009; Daou, 2012).
  • Beta Glucan decreases dyslipidemia and associated risks such as cardiovascular complications, hypertension, nephrotoxicity and hepatic injury (Daou, 2012; Clemens, 2012; Paquet, 2010).

Safety

Beta Glucan is Generally Recognized As Safe (GRAS) according to FDA.

Side effects

These symptoms are generally short-lived and can be minimized or avoided by increasing intake of fiber-rich foods gradually and increasing water intake to 3 liters per day.

  • Flatulence: Beta Glucan increases gas production resulting in increased flatulence.
  • Abdominal cramping: Beta Glucan increases gas production which may result in abdominal cramping.

Drug interactions

  • Antidiabetic drugs: As both Beta Glucan and antidiabetic drugs decrease blood glucose levels, it is important to monitor glucose levels and speak to a physician about decreasing the antidiabetic drugs if required.
  • Antihypertensive drugs: Beta Glucan may reduce systolic and diastolic blood pressure in hypertensive individuals, particularly those who are obese (Katz, 2001). Therefore, concomitant use of Beta Glucan and antihypertensive drugs (like captopril (Capoten), enalapril (Vasotec), losartan (Cozaar), valsartan (Diovan), diltiazem (Cardizem), amlodipine (Norvasc), hydrochlorothiazide (HydroDIURIL), furosemide (Lasix), etc.) may increase the risk of hypotension and should be used with caution.
  • Immunosuppressants: Beta Glucan might decrease the effects of immunosuppressants (like azathioprine (Imuran), basiliximab (Simulect), cyclosporine (Neoral, Sandimmune), daclizumab (Zenapax), muromonab-CD3 (OKT3, Orthoclone OKT3), mycophenolate (CellCept), tacrolimus (FK506, Prograf), sirolimus (Rapamune), prednisone (Deltasone, Orasone), and other corticosteroids (glucocorticoids)) because of its immunostimulant effects (Sherwood, 1987).
  • Indomethacin: Combination of indomethacin and Beta Glucan increases the lethal toxicity of oral indomethacin (Yoshioka, 1998). Until more information is available, use the combination of indomethacin and Beta Glucan cautiously.

Interactions with herbs & supplements

Herbs and supplements with hypotensive effects: Beta Glucan may have hypotensive effects in some individuals (Katz, 2001). Therefore, combining Beta Glucan with other herbs or supplements with hypotensive effects (like andrographis, casein peptides, cat’s claw, coenzyme Q-10, fish oil, L-arginine, lycium, stinging nettle, theanine, etc.) might increase the risk of hypotension.

Interactions with foods

None known.

Interactions with lab tests

Diagnosis of fungal infections: (1,3)-Beta-D-glucan in the blood is used as a surrogate marker for fungal infection diagnosis (Hachem, 2009). Theoretically, consumption of Beta Glucan may produce false positive results when beta-glucan assays are used (Pazos, 2007).

White blood cells count: Beta Glucan can cause a transient increase in the number of white cells (leukocytosis) (Babineau, 1994).

Caution

  • Pregnancy and breastfeeding: There is limited research and therefore best to avoid while pregnant or breastfeeding.
  • Diabetes: As Beta Glucan lowers blood glucose levels, it is important to monitor glucose levels to avoid hypoglycemic episodes.
  • AIDS/HIV: Thick patches of skin on the palms of the hands and soles of the feet (keratoderma) can develop. The condition can start during the first 2 weeks of ingestion and generally disappear 2 to 4 weeks after use of Beta Glucan stops (Duvic, 1987).

References 

  1. Cicero AFG, Fogacci F, Veronesi M, et al. A randomized Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial to Evaluate the Medium-Term Effects of Oat Fibers on Human Health: The Beta-Glucan Effects on Lipid Profile, Glycemia and inTestinal Health (BELT) Study. Nutrients. 2020;12(3):686. Published 2020 Mar 3. doi:10.3390/nu12030686

  1. Akramiene, D., Kondrotas, A., Didziapetriene, J., et al. (2007). Effects of beta-glucans on the immune system. Medicina [online], 43 (8) pp. 597-606. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17895634 [Accessed 02.06.2016].
  2. Babineau, T., Hackford, A., Kenler, A., et al. (1994). A phase II multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study of three dosages of an immunomodulator (PGG-glucan) in high-risk surgical patients. Archives of Surgery [online], 129, pp. 1204-10. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7979954 [Accessed 20.09.2016].
  3. Beck, E., Tosh, S., Batterham, M., et al. (2009). Oat beta-glucan increases postprandial cholecystokinin levels, decreases insulin response and extends subjective satiety in overweight subjects. Molecular Nutrition and Food Research [online], 53 (10), pp. 1343-51. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19753601 [Accessed 25.04.2016].
  4. Bourdon, I., Yokoyama, W., Davis, P. et al. (1999). Postprandial lipid, glucose, insulin, and cholecystokinin responses in men fed barley pasta enriched with beta-glucan. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition [online], 69 (1), pp. 55-63. Available from: http://ajcn.nutrition.org/content/69/1/55.long [Accessed 29.05.2016]
  5. Braaten, J., Wood, P., Scott, F., et al. (1991). Oat gum lowers glucose and insulin after an oral glucose load. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition [online], 53 (6), pp. 1425-30. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1852092?dopt=Abstract [Accessed 25.04.2016].
  6. Casiraghi, M., Garsetti, M., Testolin, G., et al. (2006). Post-prandial responses to cereal products enriched with barley beta-glucan. Journal of American College of Nutrition [online], 25 (4), pp.313-20. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16943453 [Accessed 28.05.2016].
  7. Chan, G., Chan, W., Sze, D. (2009). The effects of β-glucan on human immune and cancer cells. Journal of Hematology & Oncology [online], 2 (1), pp.1-11. Available from: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1186/1756-8722-2-25 [Accessed 02.06.2016].
  8. Clemens, R., Kranz, S., Mobley, A., et al. (2012). Filling America’s Fiber Intake Gap: Summary of a Roundtable to Probe Realistic Solutions with a Focus on Grain-Based Foods. The Journal of Nutrition [online], 142, pp. 1390-401. Available from: http://jn.nutrition.org/content/early/2012/05/28/jn.112.160176.full.pdf [Accessed 25.04.2016].
  9. Cloetens, L., Ulmius, M., Johansson-Persson, A., et al. (2012). Role of dietary beta-glucans in the prevention of metabolic syndrome. Nutrition Reviews [online], 70 (8), pp. 444-58. Available from: https://nutritionreviews.oxfordjournals.org/content/70/8/444 [Accessed 27.04.2016].
  10. Daou, C., Zhang, H. (2012). Oat Beta‐Glucan: Its Role in Health Promotion and Prevention of Diseases. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety [online], 11 (4), pp.355-65. Available from: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1541-4337.2012.00189.x/full [Accessed 02.06.2016].
  11. Dikeman, C., Fahey, G. (2006). Viscosity as related to dietary fiber: a review. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition [online], 46 (8), pp. 649–63. Available from: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1080/10408390500511862?redirect=1 [Accessed 11.05.2016].
  12. Duvic, M., Reisman, M., Finley, V., et al. (1987). Glucan-induced keratoderma in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Archives of Dermatology [online], 123, pp. 751-6. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2953313 [Accessed 20.09.2016].
  13. Gibson, G., Beatty, E., Wang, X., et al. (1995). Selective stimulation of bifidobacteria in the human colon by oligofructose and inulin. Gastroenterology [online], 108 (4), pp. 975-82. Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0016508595901922 [Accessed 25.04.2016].
  14. Hachem, R., Kontoyiannis, D., Chemaly, R., et al. (2009). Utility of galactomannan enzyme immunoassay and (1,3) beta-D-glucan in diagnosis of invasive fungal infections: low sensitivity for Aspergillus fumigatus infection in hematologic malignancy patients. Journal of Clinical Microbiology [online], 47 (1), pp. 129-33. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2620882/ [Accessed 20.09.2016].
  15. JADA. (2008). Position of the American Dietetic Association: Health Implications of Dietary Fiber. Journal of American Dietetic Association [online], 108, pp. 1716-31. Available from: https://www.andeal.org/vault/2440/web/JADA_Fiber.pdf [Accessed 25.04.2016].
  16. Jenkins, A., Jenkins, D., Zdravkovic, U., et al. (2002). Depression of the glycemic index by high levels of beta-glucan fiber in two functional foods tested in type 2 diabetes. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition [online]. 56 (7), pp. 622-8. Available from http://europepmc.org/abstract/med/12080401 [Accessed 26.05.2016].
  17. Juvonen, K., Purhonen, A., Salmenkallio-Marttila, M., et al. (2009). Viscosity of oat bran-enriched beverages influences gastrointestinal hormonal responses in healthy humans.The Journal of Nutrition [online], 139 (3), pp. 461-6. Available from: http://jn.nutrition.org/content/139/3/461.long [Accessed 11.05.2016].
  18. Katz, D., Nawaz, H., Boukhalil, J., et al. (2001). Acute effects of oats and vitamin E on endothelial responses to ingested fat. American Journal of Preventive Medicine [online], 20 (2), pp. 124-9. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11165454 [Accessed 20.09.2016].
  19. Khoury, D., Cuda, C., Luhovyy, B., et al. (2011). Beta Glucan: Health Benefits in Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome. The Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism [online], 2012, pp. 1-28. Avaialble from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3236515/ [Accessed 26.05.2016].
  20. Pazos, C., Moragues, M., Quindos, G., et al. (2006). Diagnostic potential of (1,3)-beta-D-glucan and anti-Candida albicans germ tube antibodies for the diagnosis and therapeutic monitoring of invasive candidiasis in neutropenic adult patients. Revista Iberoamericana Micologia [online], 23 (4), pp. 209-15. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17388644 [Accessed 20.09.2016].
  21. Ostman, E., Rossi, E., Larsson, H., et al. (2006). Glucose and insulin responses in healthy men to barley bread with different levels of (1-3;1-4) glucans; predictions using fluidity measurements of in vitro enzyme digests. Journal of Cereal Science [online], 43 (2), pp. 230-5. Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0733521005001141. [Accessed 11.05.2016].
  22. Paquet, E., Turgeon, S., Lemieux, S. (2010). Effect of xanthan gum on the degradation of cereal β-glucan by ascorbic acid. Journal of Cereal Science [online], 52 (10), pp. 260-2. Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S073352101000113X [Accessed 25.04.2016].
  23. Paquin, J., Bedard, A., Lemieux, S., et al. (2013). Effects of juices enriched with xanthan and β-glucan on the glycemic response and satiety of healthy men. Applied Physiology, Nutrition and Metabolism [online], 38 (4), pp. 410-4. Available from: http://www.nrcresearchpress.com/doi/abs/10.1139/apnm-2012-0207#.Vx6AzzArI2y [Accessed 25.04.2016].
  24. Rosburg, V., Boylston, T., White, P. (2010). Viability of Bifidobacteria Strains in Yogurt with Added Oat Beta-Glucan and Corn Starch during Cold Storage. Journal of Food Science [online], 75 (5), pp. 439-44. Available from: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1750-3841.2010.01620.x/abstract;jsessionid=69E5E6D58B572EF9EBB1D1A2A2292534.f02t03?userIsAuthenticated=false&deniedAccessCustomisedMessage= [Accessed 27.04.2016].
  25. Sherwood, E., Williams, D., McNamee, R., et al. (1987). Enhancement of interleukin-1 and interleukin-2 production by soluble glucan. International Journal of Immunopharmacology [online], 9, pp. 261-7. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3497113 [Accessed 20.09.2016].
  26. Slavin, J., Green, H. (2007). Dietary fibre and satiety. Nutrition Bulletin [online], 32 (s1), pp. 32-42. Available from: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1467-3010.2007.00603.x/full [Accessed 25.04.2016].
  27. Slavin, J. (2013). Fibre and prebiotics: Mechanisms and health benefits. Nutrients [online], 5 (4), pp. 1417-35. Available from: http://www.mdpi.com/2072-6643/5/4/1417/htm [Accessed 25.04.2016].
  28. Snart, J., Bibiloni, R., Grayson, T., et al. (2006). Supplementation of the Diet with High-Viscosity Beta-Glucan Results in Enrichment for Lactobacilli in the Rat Cecum. Applied and Environmental Microbiology [online], 72 (3), pp. 1925-31. Available from: http://aem.asm.org/content/72/3/1925.full [Accessed 11.05.2016].
  29. Tappy, L., Gugolz, E., Wursch, P. (1996) Effects of breakfast cereals containing various amounts of b-glucan fibers on plasma glucose and insulin responses in NIDDM subjects. Diabetes Care [online], 19, pp. 831–4. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8842600 [Accessed 11.05.2016].
  30. Thondre, P., Henry, C. (2009). High-molecular-weight barley beta-glucan in chapatis (unleavened Indian flatbread) lowers glycemic index. NutrItion Research [online], 29 (7), pp. 480-6. Available from: http://www.nrjournal.com/article/S0271-5317(09)00124-9/abstract [Accessed 28.05.2016].
  31. Turunen, K., Tsouvelakidou, E., Nomikos, T., (2011). Impact of beta-glucan on the faecal microbiota of polypectomized patients: A pilot study. Anaerobe [online], 17 (6), pp. 403-6. Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1075996411000503 [Accessed 27.04.2016].
  32. Vitaglione, P., Lumaga, R., Stanzione, A. (2009). beta-Glucan-enriched bread reduces energy intake and modifies plasma ghrelin and peptide YY concentrations in the short term. Appetite [online], 53 (3), pp.338-44. Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0195666309005790?via%3Dihub [Accessed 28.05.2016].
  33. Yoshioka, S., Ohno, N., Miura, T., et al. (1998). Immunotoxicity of soluble beta-glucans induced by indomethacin treatment. FEMS Immunology and Medical Microbiology [online], 21, pp. 171-9. Available at: http://femsim.oxfordjournals.org/content/21/3/171.long [Accessed 20.09.2016].
  34. Yatsunenko, T., Rey, F., Manary, M., et al. (2012). Human gut microbiome viewed across age and geography. Nature [online], 486 (7402), pp. 222–7. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3376388/. [Accessed 11.05.2016].
  35. Zeković, D., Kwiatkowski, S., Vrvić, M., et al. (2005). Natural and modified (1–>3)-beta-D-glucans in health promotion and disease alleviation. Critical Reviews in Biotechnology [online], 25 (4), pp. 205-30. Available from: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/07388550500376166?journalCode=ibty20 [Accessed 11.05.2016].

Footnote

This research was sponsored by GLOBESITY FOUNDATION (nonprofit organization) and managed by Don Juravin. GLOBESITY Bootcamp for the obese is part of GLOBESITY FOUNDATION which helps obese with 70 to 400 lbs excess fat to adopt a healthy lifestyle and thereby achieve a healthy weight.

Tags: beta glucan, healthy gut flora, weight reduction, GLOBESITY FOUNDATION, weight loss, cravings, diabetes, healthy weight

DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.3964416