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Tyramine Effects on Cravings and Diabetes in GLOBESITY Bootcamp for the Obese

Effects of Tyramine on Weight Reduction Cravings and Diabetes

Authors: Marcus Free MD, Rouzbeh Motiei-Langroudi MD, Waqar Ahmad PhD, Kelly Daly RDN, and Don Juravin (Don Karl Juravin).

Abstract (Research Summary)

  • Tyramine is an amino acid derived from tyrosine, made naturally in the body, and has anti-craving and anti-diabetic effects.
  • Tyramine improves the concentration of dopamine in the brain (Hiroi 1998). The depletion of dopamine generates strong urges for specific food resulting in cravings (Chen 2008, Blum 2000, Hoehn-Saric 1982).
  • Tyramine (100mg per kg) decreases emotional food cravings by reducing stress (Banderet 1989). This action is due to increased catecholamines such as norepinephrine and dopamine (Banderet 1989).
  • Tyramine stimulates glucose transport in adipocytes (Morin 2002), therefore reducing the quantity of insulin required to maintain normal blood glucose levels. This is extremely helpful for individuals with diabetes as controlled glucose levels significantly reduce the risk of long term complications.

Tyramine Effects on Cravings

Tyramine reduces cravings by increasing the concentration of dopamine and norepinephrine.

  • Tyramine improves the concentration of dopamine in the brain (Hiroi 1998). The depletion of dopamine generates strong urges for specific food and results in cravings (Chen 2008, Blum 2000, Hoehn-Saric 1982).
  • Tyramine prevents cravings by producing additional dopamine in obese individuals. As obese individuals have diminished dopamine receptors due to excessive fat accumulation, the additional dopamine release is pivotal to reduce cravings (Chen 2008, Wang 2001).
  • Tyramine is converted to dopamine by Cytochrome P450 (CYP) (Hiroi 1998). Dopamine modulates motivation and reward circuits in the brain and hence dopamine deficiency in obese individuals perpetuates pathological eating as a means to compensate for decreased activation of these circuits (Wang 2001).
  • Tyramine (100mg per kg) decreases emotional food cravings by reducing stress (Banderet 1989). This action is due to increased catecholamines such as norepinephrine and dopamine (Banderet 1989).

Tyramine Effects on Diabetes

Tyramine reduces the quantity of insulin required to maintain normal blood glucose levels by stimulating glucose transport in adipocytes.

  • Tyramine stimulates glucose transport in adipocytes (Morin 2002), therefore reducing the quantity of insulin required to maintain normal blood glucose levels. This is extremely helpful for individuals with diabetes as controlled glucose levels significantly reduce the risk of long term complications.

Benefits, Side Effects, Drug Interactions

Benefits

  • Tyramine supplementation decreases systolic blood pressure (Deijen 1999).
  • Tyramine supplementation improves memory and cognitive abilities (Deijen 1999).

Side effects

  • Nausea: Tyramine may upset the balance of neurotransmitters in the brain and gastrointestinal tract resulting in nausea and vomiting.
  • Sleep disturbance: Tyramine may cause insomnia due to excessive release of norepinephrine.

Drug interactions

  • Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs): Tyramine along with MAOIs may produce hypertensive crisis and adrenergic crisis.
  • Antidepressants: Tyramine may increase the effects of antidepressants resulting in mania and suicidal behavior.
  • Antihypertensives: Tyramine may decrease the effectiveness resulting in increased blood pressure.

Caution

  • Depression and MAOIs: Tyramine is strictly contraindicated in individuals with depression and using MAOIs as it may create a hypertensive and adrenergic crisis.
  • Cardiovascular conditions: Tyramine is prohibited in individuals suffering from cardiovascular conditions.
  • Pregnancy and breastfeeding: There is limited research and therefore best to avoid while pregnant or breastfeeding.

References 

  1. Banderet, L., Lieberman, H. (1989). Treatment with tyrosine, a neurotransmitter precursor, reduces environmental stress in humans. Brain Research Bulletin [online], 22 (4), pp. 759-62. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2736402 [Accessed 08.06.2016]. 
  2. Blum, K., Braverman, E., Holder, J., et al. Reward deficiency syndrome: a biogenetic model for the diagnosis and treatment of impulsive, addictive, and impulsive behaviours. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs [online], 32, pp. 1-112. Available from: (2000). http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11280926 [Accessed 08.06.2016].
  3. Chen, P., Yang, Y., Yeh, T., et al. (2008). Correlation between body mass index and striatal dopamine transporter availability in healthy volunteers-a SPECT study. Neuroimage [online], 40 (1), pp. 275-9. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18096411 [Accessed 08.06.2016].
  4. Deijen, J., Weintjes, C., Vullinghs, H., et al. (1999). Tyrosine improves cognitive performance and reduces blood pressure in cadets after one week of a combat training course. Brain research Bulletin [online], 48 (2), pp. 203-9. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10230711 [Accessed 08.06.2016]. 
  5. Hiroi, T., Imaoka, S., Funae, Y. (1998). Dopamine formation from tyramine by CYP2D6. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications [online], 249 (3), pp.838-43. Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0006291X98992324 [Accessed 08.06.2016].
  6. Hoehn-Saric, R. (1982). Neurotransmitters in anxiety. Archives of General Psychiatry [online], 39 (6), pp. 735. Available from: http://archpsyc.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?articleid=492820 [Accessed 08.06.2016].
  7. Morin, N., Visentin, V., Calise, D., et al. (2002). Tyramine Stimulates Glucose Uptake in Insulin-Sensitive Tissues in Vitro and in Vivo via Its Oxidation by Amine Oxidases. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics [online], 303 (3), pp. 1238-47. Available from: http://jpet.aspetjournals.org/content/303/3/1238.short [Accessed 08.06.2016]. 
  8. Wang, G., Volkow, D., Logan, J., et al. (2001). Brain dopamine and obesity. The Lancet [online], 357 (9253), pp. 354–7. Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0140673600036436 [Accessed 08.06.2016].

Footnote

This research was sponsored by GLOBESITY FOUNDATION (nonprofit organization) and managed by Don Juravin. GLOBESITY Bootcamp for the obese is part of GLOBESITY FOUNDATION which helps obese with 70 to 400 lbs excess fat to adopt a healthy lifestyle and thereby achieve a healthy weight.

Tags: tyramine, weight reduction, GLOBESITY FOUNDATION, weight loss, cravings, diabetes, healthy weight