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Supporting Clinical Research on Diabetes in GLOBESITY Bootcamp for the Obese

Authors: Marcus Free MD, Rouzbeh Motiei-Langroudi MD, Waqar Ahmad PhD, Kelly Daly RDN, and Don Juravin (Don Karl Juravin).

The Effects of GBA Regimen on Diabetes

The GBA regimen is effective for diabetics as its ingredients decrease fasting glucose, postprandial glucose, and HbA1C, and increases sensitivity to insulin and other anti-diabetes medications such as metformin. Although the GBA regimen ingredients are effective in treating diabetes, diabetics should be cautious about GBA regimen rules, as it only includes 2 meals per day and several hours of fasting, which may result in hypoglycemia or other complications in diabetics.

The Science of Diabetes

Diabetes risk increases in relation to BMI (Schulz 2004, Colditz 1995). Diabetes is a chronic often debilitating and sometimes fatal disease, in which the body either cannot produce insulin or cannot properly use the insulin it produces (Canadian Diabetes Association 2016). This inability affects glucose metabolism and results in long term complications such as weight gain (Fang 2016, Das 2013, Flier 2012), neuropathy (tingling and numbness), nephropathy (blindness) and amputation.

Weight Gain in Diabetes

Weight gain is common in those with diabetes. In diabetics, weight gain may have different causes including leptin resistance, insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, increases in galanin or galanin resistance (a hunger hormone that regulates energy metabolism and stimulates appetite), and hypoglycemia leading to periods of cravings and consumption of high calorie foods (Fang 2016, Das 2013, Flier 2012). The combination of these causes results in higher calorie intake and accumulation of fat in the body.

Diabetes Effects on Glucose Metabolism

Consumption of carbohydrates (e.g. cakes, pastries, bread) increases blood glucose levels, which in turn stimulates the pancreas to produce insulin. Insulin acts as a key to allow glucose to enter cells; without insulin, glucose is unable to enter. However, in diabetics, there is a defect in insulin secretion, insulin action, or both resulting in high blood glucose levels and cell starvation.

Cells starving for energy signal the brain to get more glucose, thus the brain generates excessive hunger and cravings. This encourages an individual to consume more calories than required and results in weight gain (Ahima 2008).

Guar gum, Inulin, Beta-glucan, Xanthan, and Konjac are necessary additions because they are able to slow the release of glucose into the blood, therefore allowing more time for the insulin to remove it into the cells.

Craving Effects of Diabetes

Low blood glucose levels (< 4 mmol/L) cause cravings for sugar and high-calorie foods (Page 2011). Consumption of refined sugars (e.g. white bread, cakes, chocolate, pastries) triggers a rapid spike in blood glucose levels within ten to twenty minutes of ingestion (Ludwig 2002, Jenkins 1981). Carbohydrates are broken down into glucose molecules by enzymes and chemicals in the mouth, stomach, and intestine. After ingestion of carbohydrates, insulin is secreted which then moves the glucose molecules from the bloodstream into the cells. However, the rapid rise, as well as the decline of blood glucose and insulin after consumption of refined sugars, will trigger craving hours after ingestion (Ludwig 2002).

Interaction with the brain reward system is another mechanism through which ‘sugary’ meals induce craving. After consumption of meals containing sugar, an addictive effect is triggered as the brain releases dopamine, a neurotransmitter involved in the brain reward system, and addictive behavior (Avena 2008). The more glucose, the more dopamine, and therefore stronger cravings for more sugar. This creates a positive feedback system encouraging an individual to consume more sugar, and when deprived, crave sugar.

Guar gum, Inulin, Beta-glucan, Xanthan, and Konjac help reduce sugar cravings by slowing the intestinal phase of nutrient digestion and absorption, and therefore slowing the release of glucose and improving the metabolism (Smith 2011, Anderson 2009, Slavin 2007). This decreases the postprandial glucose and insulin levels (JADA 2008, Casiraghi 2006, Gatti 1984, Potter 1981), resulting in diminished cravings.

Effects of GBA Regimen on Diabetes

A successful treatment for obesity needs to help diabetics control or reverse their disease. Guar gum, Inulin, Beta-glucan, Xanthan, and Konjac are necessary additions for optimal weight loss because of the role they play on glucose metabolism.

Beta-glucan effects on diabetes

  • Beta-glucan (2.5g to 3.5g for 3 to 8 weeks) decreases fasting glucose (by 0.1 to 0.94 mmol/l) and HbA1c (a measure of long-term control of diabetes) by ~22% (He 2016, Shen 2016).

  • Decreases HbA1c (by 0.23% to 0.61%), fasting blood glucose (by 0.19mmol/L to 0.58 mmol/L), total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL), and postprandial glucose and insulin (Hou 2015).

  • Increases glucose-lowering effects and decreases intolerance to and side effects of metformin, when taken with Inulin (Burton 2015).

  • Decreases intestinal glucose transporters (SGLT1 and GLUT2) and therefore, decreases postprandial glucose levels (Abbasi 2016).

Inulin effects on diabetes

  • Decreases fasting plasma glucose (by 19 mg/dL or 9.5%), HbA1c (by 0.5 mmol/mol or 8.4%), total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and increases total antioxidant capacity (by 20%) after 8 weeks (Aliasgharzadeh 2015).

  • Increases glucose-lowering effects and decreases intolerance to and side effects of metformin, when taken with Beta-glucan (Burton 2015).

  • Improves insulin sensitivity in normoglycaemic and insulin-resistant subjects and those at risk of diabetes (Guess 2016).

  • Decreases fasting blood glucose after nine weeks in diabetic patients (Guess 2015).

Guar gum effects on diabetes

  • Decreases HbA1c (by ~7%) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (by ~16%) over 6 weeks by increasing gastric emptying and reducing postprandial hyperglycemia (Vuorinen 1992).

  • Decreases postprandial glucose and insulin levels for up to 2 hours postprandially (Lavin 1995).

  • Reverses glucose intolerance in 50% of patients after 3 months of supplementation (Kapoor 2016).

  • Decreases the peak concentration of glucose (by 44% to 56%), resulting in better glycemic control for diabetics and increased satiety, resulting in weight loss (Jenkins 1978).

  • Guar gum slows gastrointestinal transit time (by 25%), slows the absorption of glucose, and limits the rise of postprandial blood glucose levels with less insulin (Faris 1998).

Konjac effects on diabetes

  • Slows glucose metabolism and lowers insulin response (by 50%) (McCarty 2002), so that glucose is released more steadily, minimizing glucose and insulin peaks and troughs.

  • Reduces postprandial serum glucose by 5.7% when taken daily for three weeks (Vuksan 1999), resulting in better glycemic control.

  • Decreases blood glucose (by 3.8% to 6.6%) when taken for 8 weeks (Vuksan 2000).

  • Increases insulin sensitivity (Vuksan 2001), which leads to control of diabetes symptoms as insulin resistance is the mainstem of diabetes etiology.

Xanthan effects on diabetes

  • Reduces postprandial glucose either alone (by 13%) or when taken with Beta-glucan (by 36%) (Paquin 2013).

  • Reduces postprandial serum glucose levels and increases the viscosity of small intestine fluids which decreases the concentration of available glucose (Ou 2001, Braaten 1991).

  • Xanthan (12g to 14.5g daily) reduces fasting serum glucose (by 38%) and postprandial serum glucose (by 31% to 37%). It also reduces postprandial insulin (Osilesi 1985, Braaten 1991).

Sleep well (8 hours/night) effects on diabetes

  • The levels of several hormones, including leptin, ghrelin, and insulin, fluctuate according to the light and dark cycle. Circadian mechanisms tend to regulate glucose metabolism and therefore, sleep disturbance negatively impacts hormonal rhythms and metabolism and is associated with obesity, insulin resistance, and diabetes (Kim 2015, Schmid 2015, Reutrakul 2014, Nedeltcheva 2014).

  • Sleep disturbance causes failure in the function of pancreatic cells that secrete insulin, leading to glucose intolerance and diabetes (Rakshit 2014).

Limited eating span effects on diabetes

  • Limited eating span is promising against obesity and metabolic syndromes including diabetes and hypercholesterolemia (Chaix 2014).

References

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Footnote

This research was sponsored by GLOBESITY FOUNDATION (nonprofit organization) and managed by Don Juravin. GLOBESITY Bootcamp for the obese is part of GLOBESITY FOUNDATION which helps obese with 70 to 400 lbs excess fat to adopt a healthy lifestyle and thereby achieve a healthy weight.

Tags: diabetes, GLOBESITY FOUNDATION, GBA regimen, weight gain, weight loss, healthy weight, weight reduction, glucose metabolism, cravings, beta-glucan, inulin, guar gum, konjac, xanthan