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Water Intake Effects on Weight Reduction, Cravings and Diabetes in GLOBESITY Bootcamp for the Obese

WATER INTAKE Effect on Weight Reduction, Diabetes and Cravings in GLOBESITY Bootcamp for the Obese

Authors: Marcus Free MD, Rouzbeh Motiei-Langroudi MD, Waqar Ahmad PhD, Kelly Daly RDN, and Don Juravin (Don Karl Juravin).

Abstract (Research Summary)

  • Drinking at least 2 cups of water (~568 ml) right before a meal reduces food intake, which aids in weight loss (Corney et al., 2016). The water increases fullness and satisfaction, and decreases hunger. 
  • Drinking one liter of water before a meal will reduce total caloric intake (8.58 kcal) since the stomach has a capacity of approximately one liter (An et al., 2016).
  • Drinking 500 ml (1 bottle) of water increases the metabolic rate by 30% within 10 minutes of ingestion, and reaches a maximum after 30 to 40 minutes (Denis, 2010; Boschmann, 2007; Boschmann, 2003).
  • Adequate hydration is associated with lower blood glucose levels (Keller, 2003), aiding in glucose metabolism and resulting in decreased cravings.
  • Adequate hydration is associated with lower blood glucose levels (Keller, 2003), aiding in glucose metabolism and resulting in decreased cravings.

Overview

The human body is composed of ~75% water, which plays an important role in every bodily function. Hydrated a person is more efficient in body performance ranging from thinking to burning body fat. Water intake aids in weight loss. It suppresses appetite, boosts metabolism, and makes exercise more effective. Drinking more water promotes satiation, as it passes through the system and stretches the stomach, resulting in fullness. Drinking water also stimulates heat production in the body, resulting in a higher rate of metabolism.

Water Intake of 3l per Day (6 Bottles of 16 Oz)

GLOBESITY Bootcamp requires clients to drink 3 liters (6 bottles of 16 oz) of pure water per day. Assuming GBA’s 260 lbs average client with 100 lbs overweight, drinking 3 liters a day, will result in 7 lbs or 7% weight reduction over one year. 

Water Intake Effects on Weight Loss

  • Drinking at least 2 cups of water (~568 ml) immediately before a meal reduces energy intake, which assists in weight management (Corney et al., 2016). The water increases fullness and satisfaction, and decreases hunger. 
  • Drinking one liter of water (2 bottles) before each main meal results in 4.5 lbs (2 kg) weight loss over twelve weeks in overweight, middle-aged and older adults (Dennis, 2010).
  • 15.5 lbs (7 kg) weight loss over twelve weeks when consuming 500 ml (1 bottle) of water thirty minutes before each main meal with a low calorie diet (Dennis, 2010). Reductions were also observed in BMI, waist circumference, blood pressure, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglyceride concentrations (Dennis, 2010).
  • Drinking 500 ml (one bottle) of water burns 12.4 calories more than drinking 500 ml of an alternative non-caloric drink, such as diet drinks  (Boschmann, 2003). Drinking a total of 3 liters per day, in 500 ml (one bottle) increments spread out throughout the day, would burn 75 calories more than drinking an alternative non-caloric drink. This would result in 19 lbs (8.7 kg) weight loss per year (Boschmann, 2003).
  • Drinking 500 ml (1 bottle) of water before breakfast reduces 13% of calories consumed in older individuals (Davy, 2008). For an average breakfast of 360 calories, this would equate to 48 calories less each morning, and 17200 calories less each year.
  • An additional 1 liter of water per day decreases body fat by 5 lbs (2 kg) over 12 months secondary to increased energy expenditure (17,400 calories) (Stookey, 2008).
  • An additional 1.5 liters of water per day increases daily energy expenditure by approximately 48 calories (Boschmann, 2003).
  • Drinking cold water (3⁰C) increases energy expenditure by 3.5 calories over 90 min (Brown, 2006). Consuming 6 x 500ml bottles of cold water would increase energy expenditure by 22 calories per day, or 7840 calories per year.
  • Drinking 1 to 1.5 liters of water per day significantly reduces body weight, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference and body fat (Vij, 2013; Vij, 2014).
  • High fluid intake leads to hypoosmolality resulting in a reduction of body fat stores (Keller 2003).

Water Intake Effects on Stomach Capacity

  • The stomach has a capacity of approximately one liter; therefore drinking one liter of water before a meal will reduce total caloric intake (8.58 kcal) (An et al., 2016).

Water Intake Effects on Metabolic Rate

  • Drinking 500 ml (1 bottle) of water increases the metabolic rate by 30% within 10 minutes of ingestion, and reaches a maximum after 30 to 40 minutes (Denis, 2010; Boschmann, 2007; Boschmann, 2003).
  • 4.5% increase in metabolic rate after drinking cold water (3 ⁰C), in healthy and young individuals (Brown, 2006).

Water Intake Effects on Cravings

  • Adequate hydration is associated with lower blood glucose levels (Keller, 2003), aiding in glucose metabolism and resulting in decreased cravings.

Water Intake Effects on Diabetes

  • Dehydration in decompensated diabetes mellitus is associated with protein catabolism and insulin resistance of glucose metabolism (Keller, 2003).

References

  1. Corney RA, Sunderland C, James LJ. Immediate pre-meal water ingestion decreases voluntary food intake in lean young males. Eur J Nutr. 2016;55(2):815-819. doi:10.1007/s00394-015-0903-4. Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25893719/ [Accessed 13.08.2020].
  2. An, R., & ‎McCaffrey, J. (2016). Plain water consumption in relation to energy intake and diet quality among US adults, 2005-2012. Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics, 29(5), 624–632. doi:10.1111/jhn.12368 
  3. Boschmann, M., Steiniger, J., Hille, U., et al. (2003). Water-induced thermogenesis. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism [online], 88 (12) pp. 6015-9. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14671205 [Accessed 25.04.2016]. 
  4. Boschmann, M., Steiniger, J., Franke, G., et al. (2007). Water drinking induces thermogenesis through osmosensitive mechanisms. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism [online], 92 (8) pp. 3334-7. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17519319 [Accessed 25.04.2016]. 
  5. Brown, C., Dulloo, A., Montani, J. (2006). Water-induced thermogenesis reconsidered: the effects of osmolality and water temperature on energy expenditure after drinking. The Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism [online], 91 (9) pp. 3598-602. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16822824 [Accessed 25.04.2016]. 
  6. Davy, B., Dennis, E., Dengo, A., et al. (2008). Water consumption reduces energy intake at a breakfast meal in obese older adults. Journal of American Dietetic Association [online], 108 (7) pp. 1236-9. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18589036 [Accessed 25.04.2016]. 
  7. Dennis, E., Dengo, A., Comber, D., et al. (2010). Water consumption increases weight loss during a hypocaloric diet Intervention in middle-aged and older adults. Obesity [online], 18 (2), pp. 300-7. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2859815/ [Accessed 25.04.2016]. 
  8. Keller, U., Szinnai, G., Bilz, S., et al. (2003). Effects of changes in hydration on protein, glucose and lipid metabolism in man: impact on health. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition [online], 57, pp. S69-S74. Available from: http://www.nature.com/ejcn/journal/v57/n2s/full/1601904a.html [Accessed 26.05.2016]. 
  9. Lappalainen, R., Mennen, L., Van Weert, L., et al. (1993). Drinking water with a meal: a simple method of coping with feelings of hunger, satiety and desire to eat. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition [online], 47 (11) pp. 815-9. Available from: http://europepmc.org/abstract/med/8287852 [Accessed 25.04.2016]. 
  10. Stookey, J., Constant, F., Popkin, B., et al. (2008). Drinking Water Is Associated With Weight Loss in Overweight Dieting Women Independent of Diet and Activity. Obesity [online], 16 (11), pp. 2481-84. Available from: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1038/oby.2008.409/full [Accessed 25.04.2016]. 
  11. Vij, V, Joshi, A. (2013). Effect of ‘water induced thermogenesis’ on body weight, body mass index and body composition of overweight subjects. Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research [online], 7 (9) pp. 1894-6. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24179891 [Accessed 25.04.2016]. 
  12. Vij, V., Joshi,A. (2014). Effect of excessive water intake on body weight, body mass index, body fat, and appetite of overweight female participants. Journal of Natural Science, Biology and Medicine [online], 5 (2) pp. 340-4. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25097411 [Accessed: 25.04.2016].

 Footnote

This research was sponsored by GLOBESITY FOUNDATION (nonprofit organization) and managed by Don Juravin. GLOBESITY Bootcamp for the obese is part of GLOBESITY FOUNDATION which helps obese with 70 to 400 lbs excess fat to adopt a healthy lifestyle and thereby achieve a healthy weight.

Tags: water intake, weight loss, GLOBESITY FOUNDATION, weight reduction, cravings, healthy weight, diabetes

DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.3982741