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Slow Ingestion and Increased Mastication (Slower Chewing) Effects on Weight Reduction GLOBESITY Bootcamp for the Obese

SLOW INGESTION and INCREASED MASTICATION (slower chewing)

Authors: Marcus Free MD, Rouzbeh Motiei-Langroudi MD, Waqar Ahmad PhD, Kelly Daly RDN, and Don Juravin (Don Karl Juravin).

Abstract (Research Summary)

  • Slow ingestion decreases caloric intake by 66 to 70 calories per meal (Andrade, 2008). Over 3 meals per day, this equates to an additional 198 to 210 calories. That is 2 lbs to 3 lbs (1 kg to 1.4 kg) monthly weight loss.
  • Thorough chewing and slower eating can modulate energy intake as well as habitual behavior control of body weight, particularly in males (Park et al., 2015).
  • Slow ingestion significantly increases water consumption by 29% or 120 ml during each meal (Andrade, 2008).
  • Slow ingestion significantly decreases appetite and desire to eat one hour postprandial (Shah, 2015; Martin, 2007). A decreased appetite is associated with decreased caloric intake and positive effects on weight loss.

Overview

GLOBESITY Bootcamp regimen requires dieters to chew their food well and to eat slowly. This provides the brain with adequate time to signal when the stomach is full. Over the course of a month, slow ingestion through increased mastication can lead to a 3 lbs (1.4 kg) weight loss.

Total caloric intake depends on the speed of ingestion. Research has proven that slower ingestion leads to quicker satiation, decreased caloric intake, and decreased appetite postprandially. Mastication (aka chewing) also affects total caloric intake, with increased chewing leading to decreased intake. Slow ingestion decreases the amount of food consumed during a meal due to an increase in fullness hormones. The combination of these factors is favorable for weight loss. 

Slow Ingestion and Increased Mastication Effects on Weight Loss

While eating quickly doubles the risk of obesity, slow food ingestion and increased mastication per mouthful (35 instead of 10) decreases promotes weight loss through various mechanisms including decreased calorie intake (by 70 to 164 calories per meal), decreased hunger hormones (ghrelin) and increased satiety hormones (peptide YY, GLP-1).

  • Thorough chewing and slower eating can modulate energy intake as well as habitual behavior control of body weight, particularly in males (Park et al., 2015).
  • Eating quickly will increase the risk of obesity 1.8 to 2.1 times (Maruyama, 2008).
  • Eating quickly will increase the risk of obesity in children (Jahnke, 2008).
  • Slow ingestion decreases caloric intake by 66 to 70 calories per meal (Andrade, 2008). Over 3 meals per day, this equates to an additional 198 to 210 calories. Over the course of a month, avoiding these additional calories can lead to a 2 lbs to 3 lbs (1 kg to 1.4 kg) weight loss.
  • Individuals who eat more than 400 calories per meal, consume 164 less calories when chewing food slowly (half the pace of original chew) (Scisco, 2011).
  • Slow ingestion increases satiety significantly quicker, as it increases satiety inducing factors peptide YY and glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 (Andrade, 2008; Kokkinos, 2010). Feeling satiated earlier in the meal will help to reduce caloric intake.
  • Eating quickly is positively associated with insulin resistance (Otsuka, 2008), increasing the risk of weight gain and obesity.
  • Slow ingestion significantly increases water consumption by 29% or 120 ml during each meal (Andrade, 2008).
  • Slow ingestion significantly decreases appetite and desire to eat one hour postprandial (Shah, 2015; Martin, 2007). A decreased appetite is associated with decreased caloric intake and positive effects on weight loss.
  • Chewing food 35 times as opposed to 10 times per mouthful reduces food intake, finally resulting in reduced calorie intake (Smit, 2011).
  • Prolonged chewing minimizes overeating, leads to better systemic and dental health, and therefore helps to decrease total caloric intake (Christen, 1997).
  • Slower chewing is associated with a 55% increase in energy expenditure per chewing cycle, compared to fast chewing (Paphangkorakit, 2014).
  • Using a device to slow ingestion and feeding rate decreases weight by 10.8 lbs (4.9 kg) or 5.2% of initial body weight over 16 weeks (McGee, 2012).
  • Using a device giving feedback about the ingestion rate helps weight loss (Gletsu-Miller, 2014).
  • Using a device to slow ingestion in individuals undergoing diet decreases fasting (by 30%), postprandial (by 70%), and mean ghrelin levels at 12 months (by 43%) in comparison to those only undergoing standard diets, promoting more weight loss (Galhardo, 2012).

References

  1. Park, S., & Shin, W.-S. (2015). Differences in eating behaviors and masticatory performances by gender and obesity status. Physiology & Behavior, 138, 69–74. doi:10.1016/j.physbeh.2014.10.001. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0031938414004661 [Accessed 13.08.2020]
  2. Andrade, A., Green, G., Melanson, K. (2008). Eating Slowly Led to Decreases in Energy Intake within Meals in Healthy Women. Journal of the American Dietetic Association [online], 107 (7), pp. 1186-91. Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S000282230800518X [Accessed 26.04.2016].
  3. Christen, A., Christen, J. (1997). Horace Fletcher (1849-1919): “The Great Masticator.”. The Journal of History of Dentistry [online], 45 (3), pp. 95-100. Available from: http://europepmc.org/abstract/med/9693596 [Accessed 26.04.2016].
  4. Galhardo, J., Hunt, L., Lightman, S., et al. (2012). Normalizing eating behavior reduces body weight and improves gastrointestinal hormonal secretion in obese adolescents. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism [online], 97 (2), pp. 193-201. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22162463 [Accessed 03.10.2016].
  5. Gletsu-Miller, N., McCrory, M. (2014). Modifying eating behavior: novel approaches for reducing body weight, preventing weight regain, and reducing chronic disease risk. Advances in Nutrition [online], 5 (6), pp. 789-91. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4224216/ [accessed 30.09.2016].
  6. Jahnke, D., Warschburger, P. (2008). Familial transmission of eating behaviors in preschool-aged children. Obesity (Silver Spring) [online],16, pp. 1821-5. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18483480 [Accessed 03.10.2016].
  7. Kokkinos, A., Le Roux, C., Alexiadou, K., et al. (2010). Eating Slowly Increases the Postprandial Response of the Anorexigenic Gut Hormones, Peptide YY and Glucagon-Like Peptide-. The Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism [online], 95 (1), pp. 333-7. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19875483 [Accessed 26.04.2016].
  8. Martin, C., Anton, S., Walden, H., et al. (2007). Slower eating rate reduces the food intake of men, but not women: Implications for behavioral weight control. Journal of Behaviour, Research and Therapy [online], 45 (10), pp. 2349-59. Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0005796707000757 [Accessed 26.04.2016].
  9. McGee, T., Grima, M., Hewson, I., et al. (2012). First Australian experiences with an oral volume restriction device to change eating behaviors and assist with weight loss. Obesity (Silver Spring) [online], 20 (1), pp. 126-33. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22016093 [Accessed 30.09.2016].
  10. Maruyama, K., Sato, S., Ohira, T., et al. (2008). The joint impact on being overweight of self-reported behaviours of eating quickly and eating until full: cross-sectional survey. BMJ [online], 337, pp. 2002. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2572205/ [Accessed 03.10.2016].
  11. Otsuka, R., Tamakoshi, K., Yatsuya, H., et al. (2008). Eating fast leads to insulin resistance: findings in middle-aged Japanese men and women. Preventive Medicine [online], 46, pp. 15-9. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17822753 [Accessed 03.10.2016].
  12. Paphangkorakit, J., Leelayuwat, N., Boonyawat, N., et al. (2014). Effect of chewing speed on energy expenditure in healthy subjects. Acta Odontologica Scandinavica [online], 72(6), pp. 424-7. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24102573 [Accessed 07.05.2016].
  13. Scisco, J., Muth, E., Dong, Y., et al. (2011). Slowing Bite-Rate Reduces Energy Intake: An Application of the Bite Counter Device. Journal of the American Dietetic Association [online], 11 (8), pp. 1231-5. Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0002822311005773 [Accessed 26.04.2016].
  14. Shah, M., Crisp, K., Adams-Huet, B., et al. (2015). The effect of eating speed at breakfast on appetite hormone responses and daily food consumption. Journal of Investigative Medicine [online], 63 (1), pp. 22-8. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25361054 [Accessed 26.04.2016].
  15. Smit, H., Kemsley, E., Tapp, H., et al. (2011). Does prolonged chewing reduce food intake? Fletcherism revisited. Appetite [online], 57 (1), pp. 295-8. Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0195666311000547 [Accessed 26.04.2016].

Footnote

This research was sponsored by GLOBESITY FOUNDATION (nonprofit organization) and managed by Don Juravin. GLOBESITY Bootcamp for the obese is part of GLOBESITY FOUNDATION which helps obese with 70 to 400 lbs excess fat to adopt a healthy lifestyle and thereby achieve a healthy weight.

Tags: slow ingestion, increased mastication, GLOBESITY FOUNDATION, weight reduction, weight loss, obesity, healthy weight

DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.3981377