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No Calories 4 Hours Before Sleep Effects on Weight Reduction in GLOBESITY Bootcamp Regimen

No Calories 4 Hours Before Sleep Effects on Weight Reduction in GLOBESITY Bootcamp for the Obese

Authors: Marcus Free MD, Rouzbeh Motiei-Langroudi MD, Waqar Ahmad PhD, Kelly Daly RDN, and Don Juravin (Don Karl Juravin).

Abstract (Research Summary)

  • The timing of meals during the daytime and nighttime cycle affects the circadian rhythm and how ingested food is used versus stored. Any food ingested prior to bedtime delays fat burning, resulting in weight gain (Kelly et al., 2020).
  • Nocturnal snacking or nighttime snacking is associated with the risk of obesity, and hyperglycemia in adults (Liu et al., 2017).
  • Eating outside the standard circadian cycle, such as late-night snacking, can have serious health consequences like weight gain (Arble, 2009).

Overview

According to research, not only the number of calories a person consumes affects weight gain but also when the person consumes them. The timing of meals affects the circadian rhythm of the body, which directly relates to how the ingested food is stored or used. Disturbance in the circadian rhythm causes confusion with the body as to how fast it will burn fats. Nocturnal snacking leads to weight gain through calorie intake. Nocturnal snacking also increases sugar levels which often leads to hyperglycemia. 

No Calories 4 Hours Before Sleep

GLOBESITY Bootcamp regimen requires cessation of all food intake 4 hours prior to sleeping. Nocturnal snacking increases hunger levels. An increased appetite increases caloric intake and consequently leads to weight gain.

The Science of No Calories Before Sleep

Post-dinner snacking leads to weight gain through the increased caloric intake (Waller, 2004). Nocturnal snacking increases sugar levels. When sugar levels are increased, hormones such as insulin, ghrelin, and leptin, are activated and specific systems in the body begin to work  (Kalergis, 2003). As the body becomes more alert through glucose metabolism, it may be difficult to switch off and fall asleep (Kristen, 2007). As shown in our other document, inadequate sleep causes weight gain. Women and men consume 15.3% and 9.2% more calories when deprived of sleep, respectively (St-Onge, 2011).

Nocturnal Snacking Increases Weight

  • The timing of meals during the daytime and nighttime cycle affects the circadian rhythm and how ingested food is used versus stored. Any food ingested prior to bedtime delays fat burning, resulting in weight gain (Kelly et al., 2020).
  • Eating outside the standard circadian cycle, such as late-night snacking, can have serious health consequences like weight gain (Arble, 2009).
  • Nocturnal snacking increases hunger levels (Colles, 2007). An increased appetite increases calorie intake and leads to weight gain.

Nocturnal Snacking Increases Risk of Diabetes

  • Nocturnal snacking or nighttime snacking is associated with the risk of obesity, and hyperglycemia in adults (Liu et al., 2017).

References

  1. Kelly KP, McGuinness OP, Buchowski M, Hughey JJ, Chen H, Powers J, et al. (2020) Eating breakfast and avoiding late-evening snacking sustains lipid oxidation. PLoS Biol 18(2): e3000622. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal. pbio.3000622[Accessed 13.08.2020].
  2. Liu, X. Y., Zheng, C. L., Xu, C., Liu, Q., Wang, J., Hong, Y. Z., & Zhao, P. (2017). Nighttime snacking is associated with risk of obesity and hyperglycemia in adults: a cross-sectional survey from Chinese adult teachers. Journal of biomedical research, 31(6), 541–547. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.7555/JBR.31.20160083.
  3. Arble, D., Bass, J., Laposky, A., et al. (2009). Circadian Timing of Food Intake Contributes to Weight Gain. Journal of Obesity [online], 17 (11), pp. 2100-2. Available from: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1038/oby.2009.264/full [Accessed 09.05.2016]. 
  4. Colles, S., Dixon, J., O’Brien, P. (2007). Night eating syndrome and nocturnal snacking: association with obesity, binge eating and psychological distress. International Journal of Obesity [online], 31, pp. 1722-30. Available from: http://www.nature.com/ijo/journal/v31/n11/abs/0803664a.html [Accessed 26.04.2016]. 
  5. Kalergis, M., Schiffrin, A., Gougeon, R., et al. (2003). Impact of bedtime snack composition on prevention of nocturnal hypoglycemia in adults with type 1 diabetes undergoing intensive insulin management using lispro insulin before meals: a randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover trial. Diabetes Care, 26 (1), pp. 9-15. Available from: http://care.diabetesjournals.org/content/26/1/9.full [Accessed 07.05.2016]. 
  6. Kristen, K. (2007). Impact of sleep and sleep loss on glucose homeostasis and appetite regulation. Sleep Medicine Clinics, 2 (2), pp. 187–197. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2084401/  [Accessed 07.05.2016]. 
  7. St-Onge, M., Roberts, A., Chen, J., et al. (2011). Short sleep duration increases energy intakes but does not change energy expenditure in normal-weight individuals. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition [online], 94 (2), pp. 410-416. Available from: http://ajcn.nutrition.org/content/94/2/410.full [Accessed 25.04.2016]. 
  8. Waller, S., Vander Wal, J., Klurfeld, D., et al. (2004). Evening Ready-to-Eat Cereal Consumption Contributes to Weight Management. Journal of the American College of Nutrition [online], 23 (4), pp. 316-21. Available from: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/07315724.2004.10719374 [Accessed 26.04.2016]. 

Footnote

This research was sponsored by GLOBESITY FOUNDATION (nonprofit organization) and managed by Don Juravin. GLOBESITY Bootcamp for the obese is part of GLOBESITY FOUNDATION which helps obese with 70 to 400 lbs excess fat to adopt a healthy lifestyle and thereby achieve a healthy weight.

Tags: nocturnal snacking, weight reduction, GLOBESITY FOUNDATION, weight loss, obesity, diabetes, food craving, cravings, healthy weight

DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.3982931