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Effects of Red Meat on Weight Reduction, Cravings and Diabetes in GLOBESITY Bootcamp for the Obese

Red Meat Effect on Weight Reduction, Diabetes and Cravings in GLOBESITY Bootcamp for the Obese

Authors: Marcus Free MD, Rouzbeh Motiei-Langroudi MD, Waqar Ahmad PhD, Kelly Daly RDN, and Don Juravin (Don Karl Juravin).

Abstract (Research Summary)

  • Consumption of red meat diet is associated with more weight gain over 14 years compared to vegetables and fruit diet in black women, especially in women < 35-year-old (Boggs 2011).
  • Red meat eating does not increase body weight as compared to fish meat eating and vegetarian diets after 5 years (Rosell 2006).
  • Red meat based high protein dietary regimen for an intensive weight loss program of 12 weeks was found to be more effective than carbohydrate-rich regimen (Clifton 2008).
  • If consumed in a low carbohydrate diet, both red meat and white meat result in equal amounts of weight loss (5.2 kg to 5.7 kg over 4 weeks) (Cassady 2007).
  • Consuming red meat for 5 times per week does not reduce the efficacy of a weight loss diet (Leslie 2002).
  • Increased red meat consumption is associated with type 2 diabetes. Red meat and processed meat consumption increase diabetes risk by 8% and 12%, respectively. Each 50 g increment in red meat intake increases diabetes risk by 8% (InterAct Consortium 2013).
  • Red meat consumption is associated with an elevated diabetes type 2 risk. Increasing red meat consumption of more than 0.5 servings per day is associated with a ~50% elevated diabetes risk (1.5 times more) over 4 years. Reducing red meat consumption by more than 0.5 servings per day is associated with a ~15% lower diabetes risk (Pan 2013).
  • Consumption of processed but not fresh red meat can result in diabetes development and progress (Kouvari 2016).

Definition

The common definition considers red meat as a meat with a darker color before and after cooking. However, in nutrition, red meat is defined as any meat that has more myoglobin than white meat. Red meat is defined as all meats obtained from mammals (regardless of cut or age) as they have more myoglobin (United States Department of Agriculture). This includes beef, veal, lamb, pork, and also a leg of chicken and turkey (the latter are considered white by common definition). Fish and poultry (excluding legs) are considered white meat.

Ingredients

  • The lean component of red meat is a source of:
    • Proteins
    • Vitamins: Vitamin riboflavin (B2), niacin (B3), pyridoxine (B6), cobalamin (B12), pantothenic acid
    • Minerals: Iron, zinc, phosphorus, selenium
    • Fats: Cholesterol, saturated fats, long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fats
    • Endogenous antioxidants
    • Bioactive substances: taurine, carnitine, carnosine, ubiquinone (coenzyme Q10), glutathione, and creatine.
  • Red meats contain more myoglobin, cholesterol, saturated fats, iron, zinc and B vitamins and less polyunsaturated fats than white meat (Wyness 2016, Cassady 2007).

Effects of Red Meat on Body Weight

There is too much controversy regarding the effects of red meat consumption on weight. However, it seems that if red meat is consumed in a balanced diet with dairies and vegetables (5 times of red meat per week), it does not result in weight gain. Therefore, it is unnecessary to eliminate red meat from weight loss diets.

  • Consumption of protein from red meat and poultry rather than fish, dairy, and plant sources causes more weight gain (Halkjær 2011).
  • Consumption of red meat diet is associated with more weight gain over 14 years compared to vegetables and fruit diet in black women, especially in women < 35-year-old (Boggs 2011).
  • Consumption of more red meat contributes to body weight gain (Xu 2007).
  • Neither red meat nor white meat will result in weight gain if the individual follows a proper diet and performs exercise (Wyness 2016, Melanson 2003).
  • Red meat eating does not increase body weight as compared to fish meat eating and vegetarian diets after 5 years (Rosell 2006).
  • Red meat is avoided due to its fat content. However, dietary fat does not contribute to body fat gain (Willett 2002).
  • Red meat based high protein (34% of energy) dietary regimen for an intensive weight loss program of 12 weeks was found to be more effective than carbohydrate-rich regimen (64% of energy) (Clifton 2008).
  • A red meat containing diet helped to reduce body weight, abdominal fat, blood glucose, and cholesterol similar to a plant protein containing diet (Hill 2015).
  • If consumed in a low carbohydrate diet, both red meat and white meat result in equal amounts of weight loss (5.2 kg to 5.7 kg over 4 weeks) (Cassady 2007).
  • Consuming red meat for 5 times per week does not reduce the efficacy of a weight loss diet (Leslie 2002).

Effects of Red Meat Ingredients on Body Weight

Some ingredients of red meat (vitamins B6, B12, and pantothenic acid, taurine, and carnitine) promote weight loss, while there is no specific ingredient in red meat to cause weight gain.

Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine)

  • Vitamin B6 in red meat (30mg) results in fat loss of 230g (0.5 lbs) per week and 12.3 kg (27 lbs) per year (Nachtigal 2005, Zemel 2012).

Vitamin B12 (Cobalamin)

  • Vitamin B12 in red meat helps in weight loss (Nachtigal 2005).

Vitamin B3 (Niacin)

  • Niacin in red meat results in an increase in HDL (by 0.27 mmol/L) and decrease in LDL (by 0.25 mmol/L) and triglycerides (by 0.39 mmol/L) (Ding 2015).

Pantothenic acid

  • Pantothenic acid in red meat facilitates complete catabolism of fatty acids and release of energy from storage, relieving hunger sensation, and helping to lose weight (Leung 1995).

Taurine

  • Taurine (3 g per day over 8 weeks) does not reduce weight but increases adiponectin and decreases markers of inflammation (C-reactive protein) and lipid peroxidation in obese individuals (Rosa 2014).
  • Dietary taurine intake is inversely associated with BMI in humans (Murakami 2015).
  • Taurine suppresses obesity-induced oxidative stress and inflammation in adipocytes (Murakami 2015).
  • The concentration of taurine in adipose tissues and plasma decreases during the development of obesity, suggesting a relationship between taurine deficiency and obesity (Murakami 2015).

Carnitine

  • Carnitine decreases weight (by 1.3 kg (2.9 lbs)) and BMI (by ~0.5) (Pooyandjoo 2016).

Effects of Red Meat on Cravings

Red meat and none of its ingredients induce cravings for food or carbohydrates.

  • To date, red meat consumption is not known to increase food cravings.

Effects of Red Meat on Diabetes

Diabetics should be cautious about excess red meat use as it increases diabetes risk (by 8% to 12% for every added 50 g or 50% for every added 0.5 per day servings). However, most research agrees that it is processed red meat, not fresh red meat, that increases the risk of diabetes.

  • Generally, there is no universal dietary strategy to prevent or delay diabetes. However, consumption of less red meat along adhering to a diabetes diet is the best way to decrease diabetes risk (Salas-Salvado 2011).
  • Increased red meat consumption is associated with type 2 diabetes. Red meat and processed meat consumption increase diabetes risk by 8% and 12%, respectively. Each 50 g increment in red meat intake increases diabetes risk by 8% (InterAct Consortium 2013).
  • Red meat consumption is associated with an elevated diabetes type 2 risk. Increasing red meat consumption of more than 0.5 servings per day is associated with a ~50% elevated diabetes risk (1.5 times more) over 4 years. Reducing red meat consumption by more than 0.5 servings per day is associated with a ~15% lower diabetes risk (Pan 2013).
  • Total red meat consumption (not separating fresh or processed meat) is associated with a higher diabetes type 2 risk (Wittenbecher 2015).
  • Consumption of processed but not fresh red meat can result in diabetes development and progress (Kouvari 2016).
  • Red meat contains branched amino acids whose metabolites increase the risk of diabetes. The risk is more pronounced in processed red meat, as these metabolites interact with saturated fat, salt, and nitrates in processed meat (Kim 2015).

Effects of Red Meat Ingredients on Diabetes

Some red meat ingredients including niacin, heme iron, and selenium increase blood glucose. Despite the general diabetes-inducing risk of red meat and the ingredients, some other red meat ingredients (vitamins B2, B6 and B12, taurine, carnitine, and carnosine) help in glycemic control.

Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine)

  • Vitamin B6 in red meat reduces fasting plasma glucose (by 23%), insulin (by 16%), and free fatty acids (by 24%) (Muellenbach 2008).

Vitamin B12 (Cobalamin)

  • Vitamin B12 in red meat is associated with greater insulin sensitivity and lowers the risk of diabetes (Krishnaveni 2009).
  • Vitamin B12 intake is lower in diabetics and the lower intake is correlated with diabetes risk (Mahalle 2014).

Vitamin B3 (Niacin)

  • Niacin in red meat results in an increase in fasting plasma glucose (by 0.085 mmol/L) (Ding 2015).
  • Niacin in red meat increases the risk of diabetes (by 1.9% to 4.7%) (Sazonov 2016, Zhou 2010).

Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin)

  • Vitamin B2 intake is lower in diabetics and is correlated with diabetes risk (Mahalle 2014).

Iron

  • Heme iron in red meat increases diabetes risk by 33%. Each 1mg daily increment of heme iron intake increases diabetes risk by 16% (Bao 2012).
  • Excessive iron intake from red meat, especially processed meat, increases the risk of diabetes (Hansen 2014, White 2013).

Selenium

  • Excessive selenium intake from red meat increases the risk of diabetes by 52% (Wei 2015).
  • Excessive selenium intake increases fasting plasma glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin A1c, increasing diabetes risk (Faghihi 2014).

Taurine

  • Taurine is beneficial against diabetes and insulin resistance and the related complications (retinopathy, nephropathy, neuropathy, atherosclerosis, and cardiomyopathy) through its antioxidant effects and regulation of transmitters and osmosis (Sirdah 2015, Imae 2014, Ito 2012, De la Puerta 2010, Kim 2007, Franconi 2006, Franconi 2004, Hansen 2001).
  • Taurine (1.5 g per day for 8 weeks) has no effect on insulin secretion or sensitivity (Brons 2004).

Carnitine

1L-carnitine reduces fasting plasma glucose (by ~10-15% mg/dL), total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) (Vidal-Casariego 2013).

L-carnitine (1 g 3 times per day for 12 weeks) decreases fasting plasma glucose (by 9%) and increases triglycerides (by 19%) in diabetics (Rahbar 2005).

Carnosine

Carnosine protects diabetic patients from nephropathy (kidney disease) (Janssen 2005).

Carnosine helps to protect diabetic patients from complications due to its antioxidant, chelating, and anti-glycation activity (Budzen 2013, Hipkiss 2009, Hipkiss 2005).

References

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Footnote

This research was sponsored by GLOBESITY FOUNDATION (nonprofit organization) and managed by Don Juravin. GLOBESITY Bootcamp for the obese is part of GLOBESITY FOUNDATION which helps obese with 70 to 400 lbs excess fat to adopt a healthy lifestyle and thereby achieve a healthy weight.

Tags: red meat, GLOBESITY FOUNDATION, pyridoxine, cobalamin, niacin, pantothenic acid, taurine, carnitine, riboflavin, iron, selenium, carnosine, weight-loss, cravings, diabetes