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Daily Fasting Effect on Weight Reduction, Diabetes, and Cravings in GLOBESITY Bootcamp for the Obese

DAILY FASTING Effect on Weight Reduction, Diabetes and Cravings in GLOBESITY Bootcamp for the Obese

Authors: Marcus Free MD, Rouzbeh Motiei-Langroudi MD, Waqar Ahmad PhD, Kelly Daly RDN, and Don Juravin (Don Karl Juravin).

Abstract (Research Summary)

  • 14 hours a day fasting reduces weight up to 3.2 kg, total cholesterol by 7%, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol by 11%,  and non-high-density lipoprotein (HDL) by 9% in 12 weeks (Wilkinson et al., 2019).
  • 14 hours a day fasting improves fasting glucose by 5%, fasting insulin by 21%, and HbA1c by 2% in 12 weeks (Wilkinson et al., 2019).
  • Short-term fasting increases metabolic rate by 3.6% to 14%, helping to burn additional calories (Mansell, 1990; Zauner, 2000).
  • Three weeks of fasting nearly completely abolishes reactivity to food images and the frequency of cravings. This effect is much stronger for individuals who include fasting as part of their dietary regimen, as opposed to diet alone (Lappalainen, 1990).

Overview

GLOBESITY Bootcamp regimen requires an intermittent fasting rule which accounts for ~5% body weight loss in one month. Assuming that the average client is about 100 lbs (45 kg) overweight and weighs about 260 lbs (118 kg), this equates to 13 lbs (6 kg) a month or 13% total bodyweight reduction.

Fasting burns fat (Harvie, 2011) as it enhances hormone function. Lower insulin levels and higher growth hormone levels increase the breakdown of body fat (Wilcox, 2005). For this reason, short-term fasting increases the metabolic rate by 3.6% to 14%, helping burn even more calories (Zauner, 2000; Mansell, 1990). Daily fasting lowers the risk of acquiring metabolic syndrome, which includes conditions such as increased blood pressure, high blood sugar, excess body fat, and abnormal cholesterol or triglyceride levels.

Daily Fasting Effects on Weight Loss

  • 14 hours daily fasting or 10 hour time-restricted eating (TRE) reduces weight up to 3.2 kg, total cholesterol by 7%, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol by 11%,  and non-high-density lipoprotein (HDL) by 9% in 12 weeks (Wilkinson et al., 2019).
  • Intermittent fasting causes 11 lbs to 17 lbs (5 kg to 8 kg) weight loss over 6 months (Harvie, 2011).
  • Intermittent fasting for 1 month promotes weight reduction (Hallak, 1988). This is the equivalent of 13 lbs (6 kg) weight loss in an average of 260 lbs (118 kg ) person.
  • Intermittent fasting facilitates fat burning through decreased insulin levels (Heilbronn, 2005).
  • Growth hormone levels may increase by 5-fold during intermittent fasting (Hartman, 1992; Ho, 1988), which facilitates fat burning and increases muscle strength (Blackman, 2002; Rudman, 1990).
  • Intermittent fasting reduces calorie intake, body fat (by 4% to 7%), and body weight (by 250 g to 750 g per week or 3% to 8%) after 3 to 24 weeks (Barnosky, 2014; Johnstone, 2007).
  • Intermittent fasting decreases weight by 7% over 24 weeks (Harvie, 2011). In an average 260 lbs (118 kg) client, this is 18 lbs (8.3 kg) weight loss and 6% waist circumference (belly fat) reduction (Harvie, 2011).

Daily Fasting Effects on Metabolic Rate

  • Short-term fasting increases metabolic rate by 3.6% to 14%, helping to burn additional calories (Mansell, 1990; Zauner, 2000).
  • During a fasting state, insulin decreases (Heilbronn, 2005), resulting in fat burning (Wilcox, 2005).

Daily Fasting Effects on Diabetes

  • 14 hours daily fasting or 10 hour restricted-eating improves fasting glucose by 5%, fasting insulin by 21%, and HbA1c by 2% in 12 weeks (Wilkinson et al., 2019).

Daily Fasting Effects on Cravings

  • Three weeks of fasting nearly completely abolishes reactivity to food images and the frequency of cravings. This effect is much stronger for individuals who include fasting as part of their dietary regimen, as opposed to diet alone (Lappalainen, 1990).

References

  1. Wilkinson, M. J., Manoogian, E. N. C., Zadourian, A., Lo, H., Fakhouri, S., Shoghi, A., … Taub, P. R. (2019). Ten-Hour Time-Restricted Eating Reduces Weight, Blood Pressure, and Atherogenic Lipids in Patients with Metabolic Syndrome. Cell Metabolism. doi:10.1016/j.cmet.2019.11.004 Available from: https://www.cell.com/cell-metabolism/fulltext/S1550-4131(19)30611-4 [Accessed 12.08.2020]
  2. Barnosky, A., Hoddy, K., Unterman, T., et al. (2014). Intermittent fasting vs daily calorie restriction for type 2 diabetes prevention: a review of human findings. Translational Research [online], 164 (4), pp. 302-11. Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S193152441400200X [Accessed 25.04.2016].
  3. Blackman, M., Sorkin, J., Munzer, T., et al. (2002). Growth hormone and sex steroid administration in healthy aged women and men: a randomized controlled trial. Journal of American Medical Association [online], 288 (18), pp. 2282-92. Available from: http://jama.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?articleid=1108358 [Accessed 29.04.2016].
  4. Chaix, A., Zarrinpar, A., Miu, P., et al. (2014). Time-restricted feeding is a preventative and therapeutic intervention against diverse nutritional challenges. Cell Metabolism [online], 20(6), pp. 991-1005. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4255155/ [Accessed 25.05.2016].
  5. Hallack. M., Nomani, M. (1988). Body weight loss and changes in blood lipid levels in normal men on hypocaloric diets during Ramadan fasting. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition [online], 48 (5), pp. 1997-210. Available from: http://ajcn.nutrition.org/content/48/5/1197.short [Accessed 25.04.2016].
  6. Hartman, M., Veldhuis, J., Johnson, M., et al. (1992). Augmented growth hormone (GH) secretory burst frequency and amplitude mediate enhanced GH secretion during a two-day fast in normal men. Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism [online], 74 (4), pp. 756-65. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1548337 [Accessed 25.04.2016].
  7. Harvie, M., Pegington, M., Mattson, M., et al. (2011). The effects of intermittent or continuous energy restriction on weight loss and metabolic disease risk markers: a randomized trial in young overweight women. International Journal of Obesity [online], 35 (5), pp. 714-27. Available from: http://www.nature.com/ijo/journal/v35/n5/abs/ijo2010171a.html [Accessed 25.04.2016].
  8. Heilbronn, L., Smith, S., Martin, C., et al. (2005). Alternate-day fasting in nonobese subjects: effects on body weight, body composition, and energy metabolism. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition [online], 81 (1), pp. 69-73. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15640462 [Accessed 25.04.2016].
  9. Ho, K., Veldhuis, J., Johnson, M., et al. (1988). Fasting enhances growth hormone secretion and amplifies the complex rhythms of growth hormone secretion in man. Journal of Clinical Investigation [online], 81 (4), pp. 968-75. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC329619/ [Accessed 25.04.2015].
  10. Johnstone, A. (2007). Fasting? The Ultimate Diet?. Obesity Reviews [online], 8 (3), pp. 211-22. Available from: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1467-789X.2006.00266.x/abstract [Accessed 25.04.2016].
  11. Lappalainen, R., Sjödén, P.O., Hursti, T., Vesa, V. (1990). Hunger/craving responses and reactivity to food stimuli during fasting and dieting. International Journal of Obesity [online], 14 (8), pp. 679-88. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2228402 [Accessed 26.05.2016].
  12. Mansell, P., Fellows, I., Macdonald, I. (1990). Enhanced thermogenic response to epinephrine after 48-h starvation in humans. The American Journal of Physiology [online], 258 (1), pp. 87-93. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2405717 [Accessed 25.04.2016].
  13. Rudman, D., Feller, A., Nagraj, H., et al. (1990). Effects of human growth hormone in men over 60 years old. The New England Journal of Medicine [online], 323 (1), pp. 1-6. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2355952 [Accessed 25.04.2016].
  14. Wilcox, G. (2005). Insulin and Insulin Resistance. Clinical Biochemical Review [online]; 26 (2),  pp. 19–39. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1204764/ [Accessed 04.05.2016].
  15. Zauner, C., Schneeweiss, B., Kranz, A., et al. (2000). Resting energy expenditure in short-term starvation is increased as a result of an increase in serum norepinephrine. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition [online], 71 (6), pp. 1511-5. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10837292 [Accessed 25.04.2016].

Footnote

This research was sponsored by GLOBESITY FOUNDATION (nonprofit organization) and managed by Don Juravin. GLOBESITY Bootcamp for the obese is part of GLOBESITY FOUNDATION which helps obese with 70 to 400 lbs excess fat to adopt a healthy lifestyle and thereby achieve a healthy weight.

Tags: fasting, weight reduction, GLOBESITY FOUNDATION, weight loss, cravings, diabetes, healthy weight, increase metabolic rate

DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.3981165