Authors: Marcus Free MD, Rouzbeh Motiei-Langroudi MD, Waqar Ahmad PhD, Kelly Daly RDN, and Don Juravin (Don Karl Juravin).
Abstract (Research Summary)
- Citrus paradisi (aka Grapefruit, active ingredient: Naringin) decreases weight by improving fat metabolism and glycemic control and protects the liver and body from free radicals.
- Naringin decreases weight by increasing the metabolism of fat, decreasing inflammation of adipocytes, reducing hunger, and lowering oxidative stress to enhance overall metabolism (Alam 2013, Mahmoud 2012, Mahmood 2014, Nakajima 2014).
- The effect exerted by Naringin (30mg/kg) and vitamin C (50mg/kg) was similar to the effect exerted by insulin (6 units per kg) to decrease blood glucose levels and cravings (Punithavathi 2008).
- Naringin normalizes blood glucose levels by reducing oxidative stress on the liver, resulting in reduced cravings (Kandhare 2012, Mahmood 2014).
- Naringin suppresses appetite by inhibiting the synthesis of ghrelin and protecting the brain areas responsible for dopamine and serotonin sensitivity, resulting in decreased cravings (Astell 2013, Kumar 2010).
- Naringin improves the secretion of insulin from islet β-cells and enhances the uptake of glucose from the blood (Zhang 2012), leading to better control of blood glucose levels.
Naringin Effects on Weight Reduction
Naringin decreases weight by increasing fat metabolism, decreasing inflammation of adipocytes, reducing hunger, and protecting the liver from oxidative stress.
- Naringin decreases body weight by increasing fat metabolism and reducing adipocyte inflammation (Mahmoud 2012, Mahmood 2014).
- Naringin lowers oxidative stress and improves overall and lipid metabolism resulting in weight loss (Alam 2013, Mahmood 2014).
- Naringin reduces hunger and promotes weight loss (Nakajima 2014).
- Naringin reduces adipocyte inflammation and prevents fat deposition (González-Gallego 2007). Reduction in inflammation decreases the size of adipocytes and reduces weight (González-Gallego 2007, Yao 2004).
Naringin Effects on Cravings
Naringin decreases cravings by normalizing blood glucose levels, reducing the secretion of ghrelin, and decreasing the sensitivity of brain centers to dopamine and serotonin.
- Naringin normalizes blood glucose levels and reduces sugar cravings (Kandhare 2012, Mahmood 2014).
- Naringin suppresses appetite by inhibiting the ghrelin synthesis, resulting in decreased hunger and cravings (Astell 2013).
- Naringin decreases the sensitivity of specific brain centers to serotonin and dopamine, leading to decreased cravings (González-Gallego 2007, Kumar 2010).
Naringin Effects on Diabetes
Naringin improves glycemic control by protecting the liver from oxidative stress, improving glucose metabolism in the liver, improving glucose uptake from the blood, enhancing the secretion of insulin from the pancreas, and reducing insulin resistance.
- Naringin protects the liver from free radicals and oxidative stress by improving the metabolism of carbohydrates, resulting in well-controlled and normalized blood glucose levels (Punithavathi 2008, Kandhare 2012, Mahmood 2014).
- Naringin improves the secretion of insulin from the pancreas islet β-cells and enhances the uptake of glucose from the blood (Zhang 2012). This makes it easier for diabetics to control their blood glucose levels.
- Naringin (30mg/kg) and vitamin C (50mg/kg) exert an effect similar to that of insulin (6 units per kg) to decrease blood glucose levels and postprandial hyperglycemia (Punithavathi 2008).
- Naringin reduces cytokine production and adipocyte inflammation, resulting in improved insulin sensitivity (Alam 2013).
Benefits, Side Effects, Drug Interactions
- Naringin protects blood vessels from oxidative stress thus improving the supply of blood to the heart and protecting it from diseases (Rajadurai 2006).
- Naringin is a neuroprotectant which improves cognitive abilities and memory (Kumar 2010).
Naringin is Generally Recognized As Safe (GRAS) according to FDA.
Naringin has no known drug interactions.
- Antidiabetic drugs: As both Naringin and anti-diabetic drugs decrease blood glucose levels, it is important to monitor glucose levels and speak to a physician about decreasing the antidiabetic drugs if required.
There are no known medical conditions encouraging the disuse of Naringin.
- Alam, A., Kauter, K., Brown, L. (2013). Naringin improves diet-induced cardiovascular dysfunction and obesity in high carbohydrate, high fat diet-fed rats. Nutrients [online], 5 (3) p. 637-50. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3705310/ [Accessed 03.06.2016].
- Astell, K., Mathai, M., Su, X. (2013). A review on botanical species and chemical compounds with appetite suppressing properties for body weight control. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition [online], 68 (3), pp. 213-21. http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11130-013-0361-1 [Accessed 06.06.2016].
- González-Gallego, J., Sánchez-Campos, S., Tuñón, M. (2007). Anti-inflammatory properties of dietary flavonoids. Nutrición hospitalaria [online]. 22 (3) pp. 287-93. Available from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17612370 [Accessed 13.06.2016].
- Kandhare, A., Raygude, K., Ghosh, P., et al. (2012). Neuroprotective effect of naringin by modulation of endogenous biomarkers in streptozotocin induced painful diabetic neuropathy. Fitoterapia [online], 83 (4), pp. 650-59. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22809898 [Accessed 03.06.2016].
- Kumar, A., Dogra, S., Prakash, A. (2010). Protective effect of naringin, a citrus flavonoid, against colchicine-induced cognitive dysfunction and oxidative damage in rats. Journal of Medicinal Food [online], 13 (4), pp. 976-84. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20673063 [Accessed 06.06.2016].
- Mahmoud, A., Ashour, M., Abdel-Moneim, A., et al. (2012). Hesperidin and naringin attenuate hyperglycemia-mediated oxidative stress and proinflammatory cytokine production in high fat fed/streptozotocin-induced type 2 diabetic rats. Journal of Diabetes and Its Complications [online], 26 (6), pp. 483-90. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22809898 [Accessed 03.06.2016].
- Mahmood, N. (2014). A review of α-amylase inhibitors on weight loss and glycemic control in pathological state such as obesity and diabetes. Comparative Clinical Pathology [online], pp.1-12. Available from: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00580-014-1967-x [Accessed 06.06.2016].
- Nakajima, V., Macedo, G., Macedo, J. (2014). Citrus bioactive phenolics: Role in the obesity treatment. LWT – Food Science and Technology [online], 59 (2), pp. 1205-12. Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0023643814001376 [Accessed 06.06.2016].
- Punithavathi, V., Anuthama, R., Prince, P. (2008). Combined treatment with naringin and vitamin C ameliorates streptozotocin‐induced diabetes in male Wistar rats. Journal of Applied Toxicology [online], 28 (6), pp.806-13. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/jat.1343/abstract [Accessed 06.06.2016].
- Rajadurai, M., Prince, M. Stanely, P. (2006). Preventive effect of naringin on lipids, lipoproteins and lipid metabolic enzymes in isoproterenol‐induced myocardial infarction in wistar rats. Journal of biochemical and molecular toxicology [online], 20 (4), pp.191-7. Available from: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/jbt.20136/abstract [Accessed 06.06.2016].
- Yao, L., Jiang, Y., Shi, J., et. al. (2004). Flavonoids in food and their health benefits. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition [online], 59 (3), pp. 113-22. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15678717 [Accessed 13.06.2016].
- Zhang, J., Sun, C., Yan, Y., et al. (2012). Purification of naringin and neohesperidin from Huyou (Citrus changshanensis) fruit and their effects on glucose consumption in human HepG2 cells. Food Chemistry [online], 135 (3), pp.1471-78. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0308814612009764 [Accessed 06.06.2016].
This research was sponsored by GLOBESITY FOUNDATION (nonprofit organization) and managed by Don Juravin. GLOBESITY Bootcamp for the obese is part of GLOBESITY FOUNDATION which helps obese with 70 to 400 lbs excess fat to adopt a healthy lifestyle and thereby achieve a healthy weight.
Tags: naringin, weight reduction, GLOBESITY FOUNDATION, weight loss, cravings, diabetes, healthy weight