White Willow Bark Extract
Salix alba. L (aka White Willow Bark, active ingredient: Salicin)
- Salix alba. L (aka White Willow Bark, active ingredient: Salicin) is a weight loss ingredient obtained from the bark of white willow and has anti-inflammatory actions that reduce the risk of obesity and diabetes (Harbourne 2009).
- Salix alba. L decreases weight by inhibiting the inflammation of adipocytes and the release of fatty acids (Shara 2015, Stohs 2012).
- Salix alba. L increases the secretion of insulin, prevents pathological inflammatory responses that increase insulin resistance, and protects the pancreas from inflammatory responses providing a better glycemic control that decreases cravings and promotes weight loss (Baron 1982, Shoelson 2012, Lontchi-Yimagou 2013).
- Salix alba. L reduces cravings by improving glycemic control and increasing brain tryptophan and serotonin (Stohs 2012, Tagliamonte 1973).
Salix Alba. L Effects On Weight
Salicin decreases weight by inhibiting the inflammation of adipocytes and increasing the release of fatty acids. Salix alba. L decreases weight by inhibiting the inflammatory effects of adipocytes (Shara 2015, Stohs 2012).
- Citrus aurantium (aka Bitter Orange, active ingredient: Synephrine) is a natural supplement containing flavonoids, essential oils, and glycosides, which stimulate lipolysis and increase resting metabolic rate (Preuss 2002).
- Citrus aurantium increases the thermic effect of food by 29% in women (Gougeon 2005). The thermic effect burns additional calories for digestion and improves the satiating effect of food (Crovetti 1998).
- Citrus aurantium supplementation increases epinephrine stimulation by 240% (Gougeon 2005). Epinephrine increases fat breakdown and promotes carbohydrate metabolism resulting in weight loss (Leboeuf 1959).
- Citrus aurantium has essential oils that increase the synthesis of serotonin and dopamine, resulting in decreased stress and anxiety-related cravings for sweet and sugary foods (Carvalho-Freitas 2002, Setzer 2009).
- Citrus aurantium decreases cravings by inhibiting the synthesis of ghrelin and improving the sensitivity to and secretion of postprandial insulin (Sharma 2008).
- Citrus aurantium protects the liver from oxidative stress resulting in improved glucose metabolism, glycemic control, and decreased cravings (Astell 2013, Kim 2012, Jiao 2007).
Citrus Aurantium Effects On Weight Reduction
Citrus aurantium decreases weight by up to 2.4 kg (5.3 lbs) in 1 week. Citrus aurantium increases the overall metabolism of fats and lipids by increasing epinephrine stimulation and increases the thermic effect of food by 29% in women.
- Higenamine Hydrochloric Acid (or Higenamine, aka norcoclaurine) is extracted from a variety of herbs and plants, including aconite root, Nandina domestica, Nelumbo nucifera, and Tinospora crispa (Liu 2000). It was traditionally used to treat heart failure, asthma, and gastrointestinal problems.
- Higenamine reduces gastric motility and energy absorption leading to weight loss and satiety (Verma 2014).
- Higenamine stimulates beta-adrenergic receptors (both beta1 and beta2) and possesses lipolytic activity (Tsukiyama 2009, Kimura 1994), resulting in burning of body fats, especially triglycerides, rather than restoring them.
- Higenamine stimulates lipolysis and energy expenditure in both healthy men and women (Lee 2013).
- Higenamine decreases cellular dopamine content by 55.2% (Shin 1999). Dopamine activates the brain reward system; therefore, decreased dopamine content results in decreased reward response and cravings.
- Higenamine improves glucose levels, enhances insulin secretion, and reduces hunger hormones, such as ghrelin and neuropeptide Y, leading to a decrease in cravings (Kato 2015, Kang 1999).
Higenamine Effects On Weight Loss
Higenamine stimulates fat burning and energy expenditure and reduces energy absorption by slowing gastric motility, resulting in weight loss and a healthier body fat ratio.
- Higenamine stimulates lipolysis and energy expenditure by significantly increased circulating free fatty acids and energy expenditure (Lee 2013).
- Higenamine has the potential to reduce body weight by decreasing gastric motility, reducing energy absorption, and improving satiety (Verma 2014).
- Higenamine is a beta-adrenergic receptor agonist (similar to ephedrine and synephrine) capable of reducing fat mass (Tsukiyama 2009, de Souza 2001, Kimura 1994).
- Tyrosine is a precursor of dopamine, norepinephrine, epinephrine, and thyroid hormones.
- L-Tyrosine in combination with capsaicin, catechins, and caffeine increases 4-hour thermogenesis (by 90 kJ) and daily energy expenditure by ~200 kJ (2%), resulting in ~7 kg (~15 lbs) weight loss and fat mass reduction over 8 weeks (Belza 2007, Belza 2005).
Tyrosine (aka 4-hydroxyphenylalanine) is a non-essential amino acid used in the synthesis of certain neurotransmitters including dopamine, norepinephrine, and epinephrine, as well as thyroid hormones thyroxine and triiodothyronine (Rosebrough 1994).
L-Tyrosine Effects On Weight Reduction
L-Tyrosine alone is not shown to promote weight loss in most human studies. However, including L-Tyrosine in combination therapies may help induce weight loss through the activation of the sympathetic system and increased thermogenesis.
- L-Tyrosine in combination with capsaicin, catechins, and caffeine increases 4-hour thermogenesis (by 90 kJ), resulting in ~7 kg (~15 lbs) weight loss and fat mass reduction over 8 weeks (Belza 2007).
- L-Tyrosine in combination with capsaicin, catechins, caffeine, and calcium increases daily energy expenditure by ~200 kJ (2%) (Belza 2005).
- Citrus paradisi (aka Grapefruit, active ingredient: Naringin) decreases weight by improving fat metabolism and glycemic control and protects the liver and body from free radicals.
- Naringin decreases weight by increasing the metabolism of fat, decreasing inflammation of adipocytes, reducing hunger and lowering oxidative stress to enhance overall metabolism (Alam 2013, Mahmoud 2012, Mahmood 2014, Nakajima 2014).
- The effect exerted by Naringin (30mg/kg) and vitamin C (50mg/kg) was similar to the effect exerted by insulin (6 units per kg) to decrease blood glucose levels and cravings (Punithavathi 2008).
- Naringin normalizes blood glucose levels by reducing oxidative stress on the liver, resulting in reduced cravings (Kandhare 2012, Mahmood 2014).
- Naringin suppresses appetite by inhibiting the synthesis of ghrelin and protecting the brain areas responsible for dopamine and serotonin sensitivity, resulting in decreased cravings (Astell 2013, Kumar 2010).
- Naringin improves the secretion of insulin from islet β-cells and enhances the uptake of glucose from blood (Zhang 2012), leading to better control of blood glucose levels.
Naringin Effects On Weight Reduction
Naringin decreases weight by increasing fat metabolism, decreasing inflammation of adipocytes, reducing hunger and protecting the liver from oxidative stress.
- Naringin decreases body weight by increasing fat metabolism and reducing adipocyte inflammation (Mahmoud 2012, Mahmood 2014).
- Naringin lowers oxidative stress and improves overall and lipid metabolism resulting in weight loss (Alam 2013, Mahmood 2014).
- Naringin reduces hunger and promotes weight loss (Nakajima 2014).
- Naringin reduces adipocyte inflammation and prevents fat deposition (González-Gallego 2007). Reduction in inflammation decreases the size of adipocytes and reduces weight (González-Gallego 2007, Yao 2004).
- Theobromine (aka xantheose, diurobromine or 3,7-dimethylxanthine) is a methylxanthine related to caffeine and present in high levels in cocoa (Baggott 2013).
- Theobromine elevates mood (Smit 2004). Because dieters eat more when moods are depressed (Baucom 1981), this effect is helpful in a weight loss regimen.
- Theobromine reduces body fat percentage and fat tissue weight (Inoue 2006).
- Theobromine potentiates the anti-obesity potential of some other weight loss drugs (Dulloo 1992).
- Theobromine has beneficial effects in reducing insulin resistance (Latham 2014).
- Theobromine prevents increases in albuminuria in diabetes (Papadimitriou 2015).
- Theobromine inhibits the enzyme which is responsible in acute and chronic inflammatory pathologies like vascular complications in diabetes (Geraets 2006).
- Theobromine may decrease the risk of proliferative retinopathy in diabetes (Skopiński 1993).
Theobromine Effects On Weight Reduction
Theobromine may have weight loss potential through enhancing other weight loss drugs and reducing body fat percentage.
- Theobromine potentiates the anti-obesity effects of some other weight loss drugs like sympathetic stimulants (Dulloo 1992).
- Theobromine reduces body fat percentage, fat tissue weight, serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels after a high-fat diet (Inoue 2006).
- Theobromine elevates mood (Smit 2004). Because dieters eat more when moods are depressed (Baucom 1981), this is extremely helpful in weight loss regimes.
Green Tea Leaf Extract
- Yohimbine is found naturally in the Pausinystalia Yohimbe tree and the Rauwolfia family of plants (Singh 2004).
- Yohimbine is best known for its fat burning and appetite suppressing properties.
- Yohimbine (10mg twice daily) reduces fat percentage by 2.1% over three weeks (Ostojic 2006).In an individual with average 45 kg (100 lb) overweight, this is 17 kg (37.5 lbs) fat reduction per year before any further dietary or exercise changes.
- Yohimbine suppresses appetite and reduces food intake by 38% to 44% (Callahan 1984).
- Yohimbine (20mg per day) reduces weight by ~3.5 kg (7.7 lb) over 3 weeks when following a low calorie diet (Kucio 1991).
- Yohimbine (20mg) increases insulin secretion by 59% in individuals with a high risk for diabetes (Tang 2014).
- Yohimbine inhibits hyperglycemia by stimulating the release of insulin (Nakadate 1980, Nakaki 1980) and blocking release of glucagon (Ito 1995, Hirose 1993).
- Yohimbine increases insulin release in non-diabetics, improves oral glucose tolerance and insulin release in type 2 diabetics and reduces plasma glucose level and increases plasma insulin level of non-diabetics and type 2 diabetics (Abdel-zaher 2001).
Yohimbine Effects On Weight Reduction
Yohimbine increases fat burning through inactivation of the alpha-2-adrenergic receptors. It reduces fat by 2.1% over 3 weeks, resulting in 17 kg (37.5 lbs) fat reduction per year for a 45 kg (100 lbs) overweight.
Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine HCl) 10 mg 500% daily value
- Vitamin B6 decreases cravings by balancing hormones such as estrogen, progesterone and neurotransmitter serotonin (Chopra, 2019). It alleviates Premenstrual syndrome, in effect preventing emotional eating and weight gain.
- Vitamin B6 (aka Pyridoxine) is a water soluble vitamin that functions as a coenzyme in the metabolism of proteins and carbohydrates (NIH, 1998). It is recommended that Vitamin B6 is regularly consumed in the diet and/or supplementation.
- Vitamin B6 is reduced by 38% in obese men and women (Aasheim, 2008).
- Vitamin B6 helps the body to convert stored carbohydrates and protein to be used as energy (NIH, 1998), and therefore aids weight loss.
- Vitamin B6 (50 mg daily) reduces cravings (De Souza, 2000) through regulating the synthesis of neurotransmitters like serotonin and norepinephrine (UMMC, 2015; Shabbir, 2013).
- Vitamin B6 enhances effects of insulin on blood glucose (Nair, 1998) and lowers blood glucose, insulin and glycemic index in diabetes (Dakshinamurti, 2015; Lapik 2014, Cicero, 2004; Muellenbach, 2008).
- Diabetic patients have a higher need of Vitamin B6 supplementation (Okada, 1999; Adaikalakoteswari, 2012).
- Vitamin B6 helps to slow progression of renal disease, dyslipidemia and cataracts in diabetics (Chen, 2004; Degenhardt, 2002).
Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine) is a water-soluble vitamin, which is best obtained from beans, poultry, fish and dark leafy greens. Vitamin B6 is significant to protein, fat and carbohydrate metabolism and creation of red blood cells. It regulates mood and reduces stress by promoting neurotransmitters (serotonin, dopamine, gamma aminobutyric acid) production, which in turn decreases cravings, preventing emotional eating and weight gain. It is also important for thought processing and healthy brain development. Vitamin B6 enhances insulin’s effect on blood glucose and glycemic index in diabetes, which leads to higher glucose-lowering potency and better glucose control.
Vitamin B6 Effects On Weight Loss
- Vitamin B6 (30 mg daily) is shown to be reduced (by 38%) in obese patients. In contrast, Vitamin B6 supplementation is associated with weight reduction.
- Vitamin B6 is reduced by 38% in obese men and women (Aasheim, 2008).
- Vitamin B6 reduces weight gain. Long-term use of Vitamin B6 (as well as multivitamins, B12 and chromium) was significantly associated with lower levels of weight gain among overweight men and women (Nachtigal, 2005).
- Vitamin B6 helps a weight reduction regimen to be successful, however, 11% to 38% of obese individuals are deficient (Aasheim, 2008). Deficiency leads to anemia and depression, making it difficult to maintain motivation and physical endurance.
- Vitamin B6 helps the body to convert stored carbohydrates and protein to be used as energy (NIH, 1998), therefore aiding in weight loss.
- Vitamin B6 (30 mg) reduces the respiratory exchange ratio by 0.019 units in overweight individuals, resulting in fat loss of 0.5 lbs (230 g) per week, and 27 lbs (12.3 kg) per year, when taken in combination with leucine (2.25 g) (Zemel, 2012).
Vitamin B12 (Cyanocobalamin) 60 mcg 1,000% DV
- Vitamin B12 and Folate promotes a healthy central nervous system, promoting metabolism of neurotransmitters (serotonin and dopamine), which prevents depression and emotional eating (Mansouripour, 2020).
- Vitamin B12 (aka: Cobalamin) is a water soluble vitamin, primarily used to prevent weight gain (Nachtigal, 2005). It helps the body convert food into fuel which is used as energy. It is also involved in DNA and red cell synthesis, iron function, and works with folate to produce SAMe, a compound involved in immune function and mood (UMMC, 2015).
- Vitamin B12 reduces weight gain (Nachtigal, 2005). Long-term use of Vitamin B12 (as well as multivitamins, B6 and chromium) was significantly associated with lower levels of weight gain among overweight men and women (Nachtigal, 2005).
- Vitamin B12 deficiency in women is associated with a higher BMI and greater insulin resistance, and results in a greater risk of gestational diabetes (Krishnaveni, 2009).
- Vitamin B12 absorption is reduced by Metformin because of a calcium-dependent ileal membrane antagonism (Bauman, 2000; Wulffele, 2003). It is therefore crucial that Vitamin B12 is supplemented in diabetics using Metformin.
- Vitamin B12 decreases cravings by increasing the synthesis of serotonin and dopamine, improving erythrocyte count and associated nutrient transportation, and by enhancing the cell repair process of brain centers (Coppen, 2005; Stabler, 2013; Asberg, 1976; Deana’ 1976; Penninx, 2006).
Vitamin B12 (Cobalamin) is a water soluble vitamin, found naturally in a wide variety of animal foods (meats, fish, poultry, eggs and dairy). Vitamin B12 helps convert food into glucose, which gives energy. Vitamin B12 increases metabolism of fats and glucose, boosting energy production, which in turn decreases weight gain by muscle production and fat loss. It also helps in the production of red blood cells and DNA, as well as the proper functioning of the central nervous system. It promotes high levels of neurotransmitters such as serotonin and dopamine, preventing depression and emotional eating.
Vitamin B12 Effects On Weight Reduction
- Vitamin B12 is significantly associated with lower levels of weight gain and deficiency is associated with a higher BMI.
- Vitamin B12 reduces weight gain. Long-term use of Vitamin B12 (as well as multivitamins, B6 and Chromium) is significantly associated with lower levels of weight gain among overweight men and women (Nachtigal, 2005).
- Vitamin B12 increases metabolism of fats and glucose and accelerates energy production as it increases the amount of healthy erythrocytes which transfer oxygen and nutrients to all the cells. Increased metabolism and energy production decreases weight by promoting muscle production and fat loss (Stabler, 2013).
- Vitamin B12 helps a weight reduction regimen be successful. Deficiency leads to anaemia and pernicious anaemia (NIH, 1998; Stabler, 2013). Anaemic symptoms include diminished energy and exercise tolerance, making it difficult to follow a weight loss regimen.
- Vitamin B12 deficiency in women is associated with greater insulin resistance and a higher BMI (Krishnaveni, 2009). It is therefore important for Vitamin B12 to be supplemented for those at risk of deficiency.
Chromium (as Picolinate) 240 mcg 200% DV
- Chromium (200 μg) reduces body weight by up to ~2.5 kg, body mass index (BMI) by ~1.1 kg/m2, fasting glucose by β-11.03 mg/dL, insulin by β-1.33 μIU/mL of 32 diabetic patients for 12 weeks (Farrokhian, 2019).
Chromium is an essential nutrient involved in the metabolism of glucose, insulin and blood lipids (Anderson, 1998a; Vincent, 2003; Anderson, 2008b).
- Chromium (400 mg daily) significantly increases lean body mass by 3.3%, decreases fat mass by 4.6% and decreases body fat percentage by 6.4% (Bulbulian, 1996). For an average 260 lbs (118 kg) individual, this would be 8.8lbs (4 kg) increase in lean body mass and 11.9 lbs (5.4 kg ) decrease in fat mass.
- Chromium exerts positive effects on glucose, insulin, and lipid metabolism, decreases body fat percentage (by 6.4%) and increases lean body mass (Anderson, 1998a; Broadhurst, 2006).
- Chromium significantly improves HbA1c (8.5% reduced to 6.6%), fasting glucose (decrease by 1.7 mmol/l) and two-hour glucose (decrease by 1.8 mmol/l) after 2 to 4 months supplementation (Anderson, 1997).
- Chromium also increases insulin receptor sensitivity by increased insulin binding (Anderson, 1986).
- Chromium decreases cravings by increasing the density of dopamine receptors, increasing the reuptake of serotonin, improving the sensitivity of insulin, serotonin and dopamine in brain and improving glycemic control (Brownley 2015, Chen 2007, Docherty 2005, Lett 2005, McLeod 2000).
Chromium is a low-dose mineral present in many foods (broccoli, potatoes, whole-grain products, beef and poultry). Chromium Picolinate is the safest form of Chromium found in dietary supplements. It promotes metabolism of carbohydrates and fats by enhancing the potency of the hormone insulin, which in turn controls the absorption of amino acids. Sufficient Chromium improves lowering of blood sugar, preventing the risk of type 2 diabetes. Chromium also allows minerals to absorb better by surrounding it with neutral molecules, which allows passing into the cell membrane.
Chromium Effects On Weight Reduction
- Chromium (400 mg daily) increases lean body mass by 3.3%, decreases fat mass by 4.6% and decreases body fat percentage by 6.4%. For an average 260 lbs (118 kg) individual, this would be an 8.8 lbs (4 kg) increase in lean body mass and 11.9 lbs (5.4 kg) decrease in fat mass.
- Chromium (≥150 µg daily) supplementation in men decreases weight by 3.1 lbs (1.4 kg), whereas men who did not supplement gained an average 11.7 lbs (5.3 kg) (Nachtigal, 2005).
- Chromium (400 mg daily) increases lean body mass by 3.3%, decreases fat mass by 4.6% and decreases body fat percentage by 6.4% (Bulbulian, 1996). For an average 260 lbs (118 kg) individual, this would be an 8.8lbs (4 kg) increase in lean body mass and a 11.9 lbs (5.4 kg) decrease in fat mass.
- Chromium supplementation decreases weight gain by 78%. Women not supplementing with chromium have an average weight gain of 14.1 lbs (6.4 kg) over 10 years, whereas women supplementing with ≥150 µg/day only gained 3.2 lbs (1.4 kg ) (Nachtigal, 2005).\
- Chromium induces weight loss of 2.4 lbs (1.1 kg) over 10 to 13 weeks (Pittler, 2003). Improvements in this range, if sustained, could lead to a loss, or prevention of gain, of approximately 8.8 lbs (4 kg ) per year (Anderson, 2008a).
- Even if Chromium only prevents the increase in body weight by 0.5 kg to 1 kg per year, it becomes consequential with time (Anderson, 2008a).
- Chromium decreases cortisol concentration (Anderson, 1991). This is important for weight control because cortisol increases circulating insulin and increases fat accumulation (Anderson, 1991).
- Chromium dose-dependently decreases food intake (Anton, 2008).
- Chromium reduces cravings, food intake and hunger levels, resulting in weight loss (Anton, 2008).
- Chromium used long term is significantly associated with weight loss (Broadhurst, 2006).