GLOBESITY FOUNDATION – My Healthy Weight Bootcamp


The ‘yellow’ ingredients: Banaba leaf extract, Bilberry fruit extract, Bitter melon fruit extract, Cinnamon bark extract, Chromium, Fenugreek seed extract, Gymnema Sylvestre leaf extract, Jambolan fruit extract, Pterocarpus marsupium bark extract, Tinospora Cordifolia leaf extract, Vanadyl sulfate, and Zinc.
Might Yellow GLOBESITY FOUNDATION solution for obesity

Table of Contents

Authors: Marcus Free MD, Rouzbeh Motiei-Langroudi MD (Harvard Medical School), and Don Juravin (Don Karl Juravin).


Ingredients are: Banaba leaf extract, Bilberry fruit extract, Bitter melon fruit extract, Cinnamon bark extract, Chromium, Fenugreek seed extract, Gymnema Sylvestre leaf extract, Jambolan fruit extract, Pterocarpus marsupium bark extract, Tinospora Cordifolia leaf extract, Vanadyl sulfate, and Zinc.

Banaba Leaf Extract

Banaba leaf extract and its active ingredients (Penta-O-galloyl-glucopyranose (PGG), Lagerstroemia speciosa L. and corosolic acid) exert hypoglycemic (glucose-lowering) effects through various mechanisms, including enhanced cellular uptake of glucose, impaired hydrolysis of sucrose and starches, decreased gluconeogenesis, and the regulation of lipid metabolism, in humans and diabetic animals.

Banaba leaf extract effects on diabetes

  • The active ingredients of Banaba leaf, a southeast Asian tree, with antidiabetic activity are Penta-O-galloyl-glucopyranose (PGG), Lagerstroemia speciosa L., and corosolic acid.
  • Banaba leaf extract exerts beneficial effects on various aspects of glucose and lipid metabolism including enhanced cellular uptake of glucose, impaired hydrolysis of sucrose and starches, decreased gluconeogenesis, and the regulation of lipid metabolism (Stohs 2012).
  • Banaba leaf tract exhibits an insulin-like glucose transport inducing activity and anti-adipogenic properties. The combination of glucose uptake and anti-adipogenesis activity is not found in the current insulin mimetic drugs and indicates a great therapeutic potential of Banaba leaf extract (Klein 2007).
  • Banaba leaf extract decreases blood glucose levels within 60 minutes in human subjects (Miura 2012).
  • Banaba leaf extract in combination with green coffee bean and Moringa Oleifera leaf extracts reduces fat mass and increases fat-free mass and improves body composition index (Stohs 2016).
  • Banaba leaf extract decreases plasma and urinary glucose and serum insulin levels in rats (Kakuda 1996).
  • Banana leaf extract in combination with garlic extract produces a synergistic and dose-dependent increase in glucose uptake in adipocytes and also inhibits sorbitol accumulation and protein glycation (Kesavanarayanan 2012).
  • Banana leaf extract in combination with garlic extract restores the glucose and lipid level to near normal level without a gain in body weight, which is the most commonly encountered side effect with the use of conventional antidiabetic agents (Kesavanarayanan 2012).
  • Banaba leaf extract decreases blood glucose, inhibits lipid peroxidation, and neutralizes reactive oxygen species and free radicals in diabetic mice (Saumya 2011).
  • Banaba leaf extract decreases weight gain, adipose tissue weight, and hemoglobin A1C (HbA1c) in mice (Suzuki 1999).
  • Banaba leaf extract reduces blood glucose, insulin, HbA1c, and triglyceride levels in study animals (Park 2005).

Bilberry Fruit Extract

Bilberry fruit extract has been shown to reduce blood glucose, increase insulin sensitivity, and decrease weight (by ~0.5 lbs per month).

Bilberry fruit extract effects on diabetes

  • The active ingredients of Bilberry fruit (aka Vaccinium myrtillus L.) are anthocyanins.
  • Bilberry fruit extract consumption for 33 to 35 days decreases waist circumference (by 1.2 cm) and weight (0.2 kg) in humans (Lehtonen 2011).
  • Bilberry fruit extract ameliorates hyperglycemia and insulin sensitivity via activation of a specific protein kinase (AMPK) in white adipose tissue, skeletal muscle, and the liver of diabetic mice (Takikawa 2010).

Bitter Melon Extract

Bitter melon extract (Momordica charantia) has antidiabetic benefits as they enhance insulin secretion and its effects at the receptor, reduce glucose absorption from the intestine and increase glucose utilization at muscles and liver. Similar to metformin and acarbose, they improve hyperglycemia (by ~65%) and hemoglobin A1c and prevent and reverse beta-cell destruction in the pancreas. The effects are less pronounced in normoglycemic conditions, avoiding the complication of hypoglycemia.

Bitter melon extract effects on diabetes

  • Bitter melon (Momordica charantia) is a popular fruit used for the treatment of diabetes and related conditions amongst the indigenous populations of Asia, South America, India, and East Africa.
  • Bitter melon extract has potential therapeutic benefits in diabetes and obesity-related metabolic dysfunction both in experimental animals and humans (Alam 2015).
  • Bitter melon extract (2000 mg daily) reduces fructosamine levels after 4 weeks (a measure of hypoglycemic potential) in diabetic individuals (Fuangchan 2011).
  • Bitter melon extract decreases high-fat diet-induced hyperglycemia, hyperleptinemia, blood HbA1c, free fatty acids, and white adipose tissue, and visceral fat weight in mice (Shih 2008, Fernandes 2007).
  • Bitter melon extract normalized the structural abnormalities of peripheral nerves in diabetic mice (Ahmed 2004).
  • Bitter melon extract reduces blood sugar in non-diabetic rats for 4 hours without inducing hypoglycemia (unlike common antidiabetic drugs in which hypoglycemia is common) (Clouatre 2011, Sekar 2005).
  • Bitter melon extract decreases glucose by 63% to 67% in diabetic rats (comparable to the antidiabetic drug metformin). It also lowers blood pressure through an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibiting activity (Clouatre 2011, Ojewole 2006).
  • Bitter melon extract reduces fasting blood glucose by 48% (comparable to the antidiabetic drug glibenclamide) (Virdi 2003).
  • Bitter melon extract improves glucose tolerance in diabetic mice (Leatherdale 1981).
  • Bitter melon extract not only decreases blood glucose and increases serum insulin levels in diabetic rats, but also alleviates the pancreatic damage and increases the islet size, number of β-cells (to almost double), and insulin granules in β-cells (to the level of non-diabetic animals), resulting in renewal and recovery of pancreatic β-cells (Abdollahi 2011, Hafizur 2011, Singh 2007a, Ahmed 1998).
  • Bitter melon extract decreases oxidative stress in pancreatic beta cells and liver and renal cells of diabetic rats, leading to decreased cell injury (Sathishsekar 2005a, Sathishsekar 2005b).
  • Bitter melon extract not only controls blood glucose levels but also has antioxidant potential to protect vital organs such as the heart and kidney against damage caused due to diabetes-induced oxidative stress (Tripathi 2010).
  • The combination of Bitter melon extract and a low dose of glimepiride shows antihyperglycemic activities without creating severe hypoglycemia in rats, suggesting it can be used as complementary medicine to treat the diabetic population by significantly reducing the dose of standard drugs (Yadav 2010).

Mechanism of action of bitter melon extract

  • Bitter melon extract decreases blood glucose levels in normal and diabetic mice by targeting insulin receptors, stimulating the insulin receptor-downstream pathway, and subsequently displaying hypoglycemic activity (Lo 2013, Yibchok-anun 2006, Baldwa 1977).
  • Bitter melon extract decreases blood glucose level by increasing insulin secretion (by 2 folds) (Kesavanarayanan 2011, Yibchok-anun 2006).
  • Bitter melon extract decreases blood glucose levels by decreasing insulin resistance through increasing glucose transporters in muscle cells (Miura 2001).
  • Bitter melon extract reduces glucose absorption by the intestine and stimulates glucose uptake by muscles and adipocytes (fat cells) of diabetic mice (Burnett 2015, Yibchok-anun 2006, Ahmed 2004).
  • Bitter melon extract inhibits the activity of α-amylase and α-glucosidase by 66% to 69%, inhibiting glucose absorption through the intestine (similar to acarbose) (Poovitha 2016).
  • Bitter melon extract decreases blood glucose levels by increased glucose utilization in the liver (Sarkar 1996).

Cinnamon Bark Extract

Cinnamon bark extract lowers fasting  (by ~40%) and postprandial blood glucose (by ~50% to 75%) through inhibition of alpha-glucosidase and amylase, activation of Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR), and increase of serotonin in the brain.

Cinnamon bark extract effects on diabetes

  • Cinnamon bark extract lowers fasting blood glucose (by ~0.5 mmol/L) in individuals with type 2 diabetes or prediabetes (Davis 2011).
  • Cinnamon bark extract lowers postprandial glucose (by 52% to 78%) (Mohamed Sham Shihabudeen 2011).
  • Cinnamon bark extract lowers blood glucose and lipid levels in rats (Kannappan 2006, Verspohl 2005).
  • Cinnamon bark extract promotes weight loss and lowers fasting blood glucose (by 38.7%) and postprandial blood glucose (Jia 2009).

Cinnamon bark extract effects on diabetes complications

  • Cinnamon bark extract prevents the formation of advanced glycation endproducts, lowering complications in diabetes (Peng 2008).

Mechanism of action of cinnamon bark extract

  • Cinnamon bark extract reversibly inhibits intestinal alpha-glucosidase (similar to the action of the antidiabetic drug acarbose) and pancreatic amylase (Mohamed Sham Shihabudeen 2011, Adisakwattana 2011, Kim 2006).
  • Cinnamon bark extract lowers fasting and postprandial blood glucose levels and rises serum insulin and adiponectin levels in mice through activation of Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) (similar to antidiabetic drugs thiazolidinediones) (Kim 2010).
  • Cinnamon bark extract improves insulin sensitivity in tissues and hepatocytes (liver cells) (Lu 2011, Kim 2006).
  • Cinnamon bark extract decreases food intake along with a concomitant increase in brain serotonin levels in rats after 5 weeks of administration (Bano 2014).


Chromium decreases glucose (by 1.8mmol/l) and HbA1C (by 2.1%), and improves insulin sensitivity in a dose-dependent manner. Chromium has been documented to reverse severe glucose intolerance and diabetic neuropathy.

Chromium effects on diabetes

  • Chromium decreases HbA1c (from 8.5% to 6.6%), fasting glucose (by 1.7mmol/l) and two-hour glucose (by 1.8mmol/l) after 2 to 4 months supplementation (Anderson 1997).
  • Chromium (200μg) increases insulin sensitivity in individuals with type 1 or 2 diabetes and also permits reductions in dosages of insulin and/or oral antidiabetic drugs after just 10 days (Chen 1997).
  • Chromium improves glucose, insulin, and HbA1C in a dose-dependant manner (Anderson 2008a, 1998). The mechanism of action involves increased insulin binding, increased insulin receptor number, and increased insulin receptor phosphorylation (Anderson 1998).
  • Chromium improves glycemic control and decreases insulin, cholesterol, and triglyceride levels (Broadhurst 2006). Improved glycemic control makes it easier for diabetics to control their cravings, as well as maintain or reduce weight.

Chromium effects on diabetes complications

  • Chromium deficiency is linked to mature onset diabetes, and supplementation leads to significant improvements in glucose tolerance, insulin, and insulin binding (Anderson 1986). This makes it easier to control blood glucose levels, and therefore reduce the risk of long term complications associated with uncontrolled diabetes.
  • Chromium supplementation at higher levels than recommendations reverses severe neuropathy and glucose intolerance (Jeejeebhoy 1977, Anderson 2008b, Anderson 1998). Chromium increases insulin binding to cells, insulin receptor number, and activates insulin receptor kinase leading to increased insulin sensitivity (Anderson 2008b).

Fenugreek Seed Extract

Fenugreek seed extract (1 g daily) decreases fasting (by 19%) and postprandial (by 14%) blood glucose, insulin resistance (by 19%), and daily fat consumption (by 13% to 17%) through enhancement of insulin secretion, function, and sensitivity. The effects are less pronounced in normoglycemic conditions, avoiding the complication of hypoglycemia.

Fenugreek seed extract effects on diabetes

  • Fenugreek seed extract (aka Trigonella foenum-graecum Linn) (1 g daily for 2 months) decreases fasting blood glucose (by 19%), postprandial glucose (by 14%), insulin resistance (by 19%), and serum triglycerides in diabetic individuals (Gupta 2001).
  • Fenugreek seed extract decreases daily fat consumption (expressed as the ratio fat reported energy intake/total energy expenditure) by 13.3% and insulin/glucose ratio by 16% without changing body weight in overweight individuals in a randomized controlled double-blinded study (Chevassus 2010).
  • Fenugreek seed extract (1176mg daily for 2 weeks) decreases daily fat consumption (by 17.3%) and total energy intake (by 11.7%) without changing body weight in overweight individuals in a randomized controlled double-blinded study (Chevassus 2009).
  • Fenugreek seed extract lowers plasma glucose, insulin, triglycerides, and insulin resistance (by 29%, 58%, 61%, and 75% in non-diabetic and 26%, 48%, 71%, and 50% in diabetic mice, respectively) (Hamza 2012). 
  • Fenugreek seed extract lowers blood glucose levels (by 18.5% in normal and 40% in diabetic rats) (Vats 2002).
  • Fenugreek seed extract, either alone or in combination with  glimepiride (an antidiabetic drug) reduces plasma glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), liver glucose transport, proinflammatory cytokines, pancreatic enzymes and restored depleted glycogen (in muscle and liver) in diabetic mice and rabbits (Joshi 2015, Puri 2012).
  • Fenugreek seed extract decreases blood glucose in diabetic mice compared to the antidiabetic drugs insulin, glimepiride, and glipizide (Swaroop 2014, Mowla 2009, Xue 2007).
  • Fenugreek seed extract improves glucose tolerance without reducing fasting blood glucose in prediabetic rabbits and reduces glucose tolerance and fasting blood glucose in diabetic animals, suggesting the lack of hypoglycemia in risk in near normal animals, and the effects are superior to the antidiabetic drug tolbutamide (Moorthy 2010, Ali 1995).
  • The combination of Fenugreek seed extract and a low dose of glimepiride shows antihyperglycemic activities without creating severe hypoglycemia in rats, suggesting it can be used as complementary medicine to treat the diabetic population by significantly reducing the dose of standard drugs (Yadav 2010).

Fenugreek seed extract effects on diabetes complications

  • Fenugreek seed extract protects kidney function in diabetic rats through its antioxidant activity (Xue 2011).
  • Fenugreek seed extract reduces body weight gain, white adipose tissue weight, adiposity index, blood glucose, serum insulin, leptin, blood lipids (low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and very low density lipoprotein cholesterol), and cardiac risk indexes (atherogenic index and coronary risk index) (Kumar 2016a).
  • Fenugreek seed extract not only controls blood glucose levels, but also have antioxidant potential to protect vital organs such as the heart, kidney, and eyes against damage caused due to diabetes-induced oxidative stress (Tripathi 2010, Vats 2004).

Mechanism of action of fenugreek seed extract

  • Fenugreek seed extract corrects metabolic alterations associated with diabetes by exhibiting insulin-like properties (Vijayakumar 2008).
  • Fenugreek seed extract enhances insulin signaling and gene expression in liver and fat cells and increases glucose uptake (Naicker 2016, Kannappan 2009, Vijayakumar 2005).
  • Fenugreek seed extract enhances insulin secretion from the pancreas and increases insulin sensitivity in tissues (Puri 2002).
  • Fenugreek seed extract inhibits glucose uptake by intestinal cells and antagonizes glucagon activity on liver cells (Al-Habori 2001).

Gymnema Sylvestre Leaf Extract

Gymnema sylvestre leaf extract (500mg once to twice daily) decreases blood glucose (by 37%), HbA1c, body weight, and food intake and increases insulin levels. It enhances insulin secretion and inhibits glucose uptake by intestinal cells.

Gymnema sylvestre leaf extract effects on diabetes

  • Gymnema sylvestre leaf extract has antiobesity and antidiabetic properties, decreases body weight and inhibits glucose absorption based on the results of a systematic review (Puthuraju 2014).
  • Gymnema sylvestre leaf extract (500mg twice daily) reduces glucose by 37%, triglycerides by 5%, cholesterol by 13%, and low-density lipoproteins (LDL) by 19% in diabetic individuals (Li 2015).
  • Gymnema sylvestre (500mg daily for 3 months) reduces fasting and postprandial blood glucose, glycated hemoglobin, polyphagia, and fatigue in diabetic individuals (Kumar 2010).
  • Gymnema sylvestre (400mg daily for 18 to 20 months) supplemented with the conventional oral drugs reduces blood glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin and helps to decrease the dosage or even stop the conventional drug (Baskaran 1990).
  • Gymnema sylvestre (1 g daily for 2 months) increases insulin and C-peptide and decreases fasting and postprandial blood glucose (Al-Romaiyan 2010).
  • The combination of Gymnema sylvestre leaf extract and a low dose of glimepiride shows antihyperglycemic activities without creating severe hypoglycemia in rats, suggesting it can be used as complementary medicine to treat the diabetic population by significantly reducing the dose of standard drugs (Yadav 2010).
  • Gymnema sylvestre reduces serum lipids, insulin, glucose, apolipoprotein B, arterial blood pressure, body weight, and body mass index, and organ weights and increases the HDL-cholesterol, apolipoprotein A1, and antioxidant enzymes levels in liver tissue in rats. It also decreases leptin, resulting in satiety and decreased food intake (Kim 2016, Pothuraju 2016, Kumar 2013, Bhansali 2013, Kumar 2012, Reddy 2012).
  • Gymnema sylvestre reduces blood glucose and has antioxidant activity in diabetic rats (Kang 2012, Okabayashi 1990).

Gymnema sylvestre leaf extract effects on diabetes complications

  • Gymnema sylvestre reduces blood glucose in normal and diabetic rats, and also urea, uric acid, and creatinine levels in diabetic rats (Sathya 2008).
  • Gymnema sylvestre exerts neuroprotective effects in diabetic mice through the activation of inflammatory molecules and oxidative stress mediators (Fatani 2015).
  • Gymnema sylvestre protects against nephropathy, retinopathy, and angiopathy in diabetics (Shanmugasundaram 1988).

Mechanism of action of gymnema sylvestre leaf extract

  • Gymnema sylvestre leaf extract increases insulin secretion from the pancreas in mice (Al-Romaiyan 2013, Sugihara 2000).
  • Gymnema sylvestre inhibits glucose transportation at gastrointestinal epithelial cells (Wang 2014).
  • Gymnema sylvestre suppresses the elevation of blood glucose level by inhibiting glucose uptake in the intestine (Shimizu 1997a, Shimizu 1997b).
  • Gymnema sylvestre enhances endogenous insulin in diabetic individuals, possibly by regeneration and revitalization of the residual pancreatic beta cells (Shanmugasundaram 1990a, Shanmugasundaram 1990b, Baskaran 1990, Shanmugasundaram 1988).

Jambolan Fruit Extract

Jambolan fruit extract decreases body weight and fasting blood glucose (by 38% to 66%) and increases plasma insulin (by 16% to 26%) in diabetic animals. It also improves liver and kidney function in diabetics. It exerts its effects through the enhancement of insulin secretion and regeneration of pancreas cells. 

Jambolan fruit extract effects on diabetes

  • Jambolan fruit extract (aka Eugenia jambolana and Syzygium cumini L.) decreases fasting blood glucose by 21% to 24% after a single dose and 38% to 48% after 1 to 2 weeks and increases plasma insulin by 24% to 26% in diabetic rabbits (Sharma 2006, Akhtar 2011).
  • Jambolan fruit extract increases insulin release (by 16%) and HDL (by 21% to 34%) and decreases LDL (by 27% to 29%) and triglycerides (by 35% to 37%) in diabetic rats (Sharma 2008).
  • Jambolan fruit extract decreases blood glucose (by 66%), glycosylated hemoglobin (by 34%), urea (by 47%), total cholesterol (by 36%), and triglycerides (by 27%) and increases high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (by 104%) in diabetic mice (Krishnasamy 2016).
  • Jambolan fruit extract decreases blood glucose by 59% to 83% after a single dose and decreases blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, total cholesterol, triglycerides, liver enzymes, urea, and creatinine and increases plasma insulin in diabetic mice after chronic use and the effects are more prominent than glibenclamide (Shahreen 2011, Kasetti 2010, Ravi 2004).
  • Jambolan fruit extract improves fasting blood glucose, body weight, blood urea and creatinine levels, and microalbuminuria (Tanwar 2010).
  • Jambolan fruit extract decreases biomarkers for oxidative stress, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and increases insulin and glucose transporters (GLUT2) in hyperglycemic mice (Samadder 2011).
  • Jambolan fruit extract decreases blood glucose in diabetic rats (Rao 2001) and the effects last for 15 days after cessation of the drug (Singh 2007b).
  • The combination of Jambolan fruit extract and a low dose of glimepiride shows antihyperglycemic activities without creating severe hypoglycemia in rats, suggesting it can be used as complementary medicine to treat the diabetic population by significantly reducing the dose of standard drugs (Yadav 2010).

Jambolan fruit extract effects on diabetes complications

  • Jambolan fruit extract protects against gastric ulcers in diabetic mice (Chaturvedi 2009).
  • Jambolan fruit extract protects against brain tissue damage in diabetic mice (Stanely Mainzen Prince 2003).
  • Jambolan fruit extract for 1 month improves blood glucose, serum lipid profile, apolipoproteins, and endothelial dysfunction parameters, resulting in protective effects on hyperglycemia-induced atherosclerosis (Tanwar 2011).
  • Jambolan fruit extract possesses nephroprotective activity (Tanwar 2010).

Mechanism of action of jambolan fruit extract

  • Jambolan fruit extract exerts its antidiabetic effects through the enhancement of insulin secretion and inhibition of insulinase activity in the liver and kidney (Sanches 2016, Achrekar 1991).
  • Jambolan fruit extract enhances endogenous insulin in diabetics by regeneration and revitalization of the residual pancreatic beta cells (Krishnasamy 2016, Sharma 2012, Singh 2007b).
  • Jambolan fruit extract upregulates peroxisome proliferators-activated (PPAR) receptors by 3 to 4 folds) (Sharma 2012, Sharma 2008).

Pterocarpus Marsupium Bark Extract

Pterocarpus marsupium bark extract decreases blood glucose and insulin peaks, which may be helpful in the control of cravings.

Pterocarpus marsupium bark extract effects on diabetes

  • Pterocarpus marsupium bark extract reduces blood glucose and hyperinsulinemia in diabetic rats after 1 month (Grover 2005).
  • Pterocarpus marsupium bark extract reduces postprandial blood glucose (by 15.2%) and blood glucose level after 3 weeks of consumption (by 58%) in diabetic rats (Vats 2002).
  • Pterocarpus marsupium bark extract reduces plasma glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, alkaline phosphatase, SGOT and SGPT in diabetic rats (Dhanabal 2006).

Pterocarpus marsupium bark extract effects on diabetes complications

  • Pterocarpus marsupium bark extract reduces lens opacity in diabetic rats, preventing cataract formation (Vats 2004).

Tinospora Cordifolia Leaf Extract

Tinospora cordifolia leaf extract decreases blood glucose through alpha-glucosidase inhibition.

  • Tinospora cordifolia leaf extract decreases blood glucose through its alpha-glucosidase inhibitor activity similar to the antidiabetic drug acarbose (Sengupta 2009).

Vanadyl Sulfate

Vanadyl sulfate decreases blood glucose (by 20%) and food intake through the preservation of insulin secretion, reduction in hepatic glucose production, enhanced insulin sensitivity, pancreatic beta cell regeneration, and improved muscle glucose uptake. It helps to decrease insulin dose in diabetics and the effects continue after drug cessation.

Vanadyl sulfate effects on diabetes

  • Vanadyl sulfate (100mg daily for 3 weeks) decreases fasting plasma glucose (by 1.7 mmol/l) and HbA1c and increases insulin sensitivity (by 82%) in diabetic individuals (Halberstam 1996).
  • Vanadyl sulfate (150mg daily for 6 weeks) decreases fasting plasma glucose (by 20%), HbA1c (by 6%), total cholesterol (by 9%), and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (by 8.5%) and increases insulin-mediated glucose disposal (by 19%) in diabetic individuals (Cusi 2001, Goldfine 2000).
  • Vanadyl sulfate (100mg daily for 3 weeks) decreases fasting plasma glucose (from 210 mg/dl to 181 mg/dl) and HbA1c (from 9.6 to 8.8) (Cohen 1995).
  • Vanadyl sulfate (50 mg twice daily for 1 month) decreases fasting glucose by 20% (from 9.3 mmol/L to 7.4), with preserved benefits for 1 month after cessation of the drug (Boden 1996).
  • Vanadyl sulfate decreases blood glucose levels, HbA1c, hyperphagia, and polydipsia, restores insulinemia, and improves insulin sensitivity in diabetic animals (Missaoui 2014, Karmaker 2008).
  • Vanadyl sulfate coadministration with insulin in diabetic rats results in a decrease of insulin dose to 8% of initial dose) (Dehghani 1997).
  • Vanadyl sulfate decreases hypothalamic neuropeptide Y in diabetic but not normal mice, decreasing food intake (Liu 2001).
  • Vanadyl sulfate decreases weight, plasma glucose, triglyceride, cholesterol, and food and water intake in diabetic rats (Venkatesan 1991).
  • Vanadyl sulfate beneficial effects on glucose homeostasis last long, even after cessation of drug use in rats (Cam 1995, Dai 1994b, Pederson 1989, Ramanadham 1989b).
  • Vanadyl sulfate is effective not only in treating diabetes in animals but also in preventing diabetes onset (Sakurai 2002).

Vanadyl sulfate effects on diabetes complications

  • Vanadyl sulfate decreases degenerative changes in diabetic rats (Yanardag 2003).
  • Vanadyl sulfate exerted antioxidant effects which prevent brain damage caused in diabetic rats (Yanardag 2006).
  • Vanadyl sulfate prevents cataract formation in diabetic animals (Dai 1994b). 

Mechanism of action of vanadyl sulfate

  • Vanadyl sulfate induces beta cells proliferation and regeneration and prevents their atrophy in diabetic rats (Missaoui 2014, Mohammadi 2014, Ahmadi 2010, Bolkent 2005).
  • Vanadyl sulfate diminishes the diabetic state in rats by substituting for or enhancing the effects of endogenous insulin (Shafrir 2001, Dehghani 1997, Ramanadham 1989a).
  • Vanadyl sulfate improves hepatic and peripheral insulin sensitivity (Cohen 1995).
  • Vanadyl sulfate augments peripheral glucose utilization (Venkatesan 1991).


Zinc reduces fasting glucose and HbA1c in diabetic individuals as it enhances insulin synthesis, secretion, and activity facilitates glucose catabolism and modulates glucose metabolizing enzymes in the gastrointestinal tract.

Zinc effects on diabetes

  • Zinc supplementation reduces fasting glucose and HbA1c in diabetic individuals (Capdor 2013, Ruz 2013).
  • Lower serum zinc levels are associated with higher HbA1c levels and poorer diabetes control in diabetic individuals (Lin 2014, Viktorinova 2009).
  • Zinc supplementation helps in the prevention and treatment of both types of diabetes, including complications of the disease (Chimienti 2013, Jansen 2009).
  • Zinc supplementation help to prevent diabetes and diabetic complications, as chronic low intake of zinc is associated with the increased risk of diabetes (Miao 2013).
  • Zinc supplementation ameliorates glycemic control in type 1 and 2 diabetes (Jansen 2009).

Zinc effects on diabetes complications

  • Low serum zinc level increases the risk of myocardial infarction and cardiovascular disease in diabetics; therefore, zinc supplementation helps to reduce the risk of heart diseases in diabetics (Soinio 2007).

Mechanism of action of zinc

  • Zinc facilitates glucose catabolism, enhances insulin activity, stimulates lipogenesis, and modulates glucose metabolizing enzymes in the gastrointestinal tract (Mwiti Kibiti 2015).
  • Zinc plays an important role in beta cell function, insulin action, glucose homeostasis, and the pathogenesis of diabetes (both type 1 and 2) and its complications (Ranasinghe 2015).
  • Zinc influences insulin synthesis, maturation and secretion, and subsequent glucose metabolism (Huang 2014).
  • Zinc affects pancreatic beta cell function, including insulin synthesis and secretion (Chimienti 2013).
  • Zinc exerts insulin-mimetic and antidiabetic effects by enhancing glucose transport and glycogen and lipid synthesis and inhibiting gluconeogenesis and lipolysis. It also activates several key components of the insulin signaling pathways (Vardatsikos 2013).
  • Zinc exerts insulin-like effects and prevents beta-cell inflammation leading to cell death in the course of the disease (Jansen 2009).

Safety and Side effects

  • Bitter melon extract may cause convulsions in children, headache in human adults and reduced fertility, a favism-like syndrome, and hepatotoxicity in animals (Basch 2003).
  • Chromium may cause palpitations, sleep disturbances, headaches, depression, anxiety, or allergic reactions.
  • Vanadyl sulfate only causes mild temporary diarrhea after long-term use and is generally safe otherwise (Soveid 2013, Thompson 2009, Dai 1994a).
  • No adverse effects have been observed or reported in animal studies or controlled human clinical trials due to Banaba leaf extract consumption (Stohs 2012).
  • No adverse effects have been reported for Fenugreek seed extract (Swaroop 2014, Mowla 2009, Flammang 2004).
  • No adverse effects have been reported for Gymnema sylvestre leaf extract (Ogawa 2004).
  • Bilberry fruit, Cinnamon bark, Jambolan fruit, Pterocarpus marsupium bark, Tinospora cordifolia leaf extracts, and zinc have no known side effects in the routine doses.


  • Diabetes: All ingredients of the yellow pill lower blood sugar and taking them along with diabetes medications might cause blood sugar to go too low. Monitor blood sugar closely.
  • Surgery: All ingredients of the yellow pill lower blood glucose levels, which could interfere with blood sugar control during and after surgery. Stop taking them at least 2 weeks before a scheduled surgery.
  • Glucose 6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency (favism): Patients with the disorder should better avoid the pills due to reports of favism like syndrome in animals after Bitter melon extract use.
  • Depression, anxiety, or schizophrenia: Chromium in the yellow pills might affect brain chemistry and make these conditions worse. Patients with these conditions should consult a physician before use.


  1. Abdollahi, M., Zuki, A., Goh, Y., et al. (2011). Effects of Momordica charantia on pancreatic histopathological changes associated with streptozotocin-induced diabetes in neonatal rats. Histology and Histopathology [online], 26 (1), pp. 13-21. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21117023 [Accessed 16.11.2016].
  2. Adisakwattana, S., Lerdsuwankij, O., Poputtachai, U., et al. (2011). Inhibitory activity of cinnamon bark species and their combination effect with acarbose against intestinal α-glucosidase and pancreatic α-amylase. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition [online], 66 (2), pp. 143-8. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21538147 [Accessed 21.10.2016].
  3. Ahmadi, S., Karimian, S., Sotoudeh, M., et al, (2010). Pancreatic islet beta cell protective effect of oral vanadyl sulphate in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats, an ultrastructure study. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences [online], . 2010 Dec 1;13(23):1135-40. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21313890 [Accessed 8.12.2016].
  4. Ahmed, I., Adeghate, E., Cummings, E., et al. (2004). Beneficial effects and mechanism of action of Momordica charantia juice in the treatment of streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus in rat. Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry [online], 261 (1-2), pp. 63-70. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15362486 [Accessed 15.11.2016].
  5. Ahmed, I., Adeghate, E., Sharma, A., et al. (1998). Effects of Momordica charantia fruit juice on islet morphology in the pancreas of the streptozotocin-diabetic rat. Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice [online], 40 (3), pp. 145-51. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9716917 [Accessed 17.11.2016].
  6. Akhtar, N., Khan, B., Majid, A., et al. (2011). Pharmaceutical and biopharmaceutical evaluation of extracts from different plant parts of indigenous origin for their hypoglycemic responses in rabbits. Acta Poloniae Pharmaceutica [online], 68 (6), pp. 919-25. Available from: http://www.ptfarm.pl/pub/File/Acta_Poloniae/2011/6/919.pdf [Accessed 5.12.2016].
  7. Alam, M., Uddin, R., Subhan, N., et al. (2015). Beneficial role of bitter melon supplementation in obesity and related complications in metabolic syndrome. Journal of Lipids [online], 2015, pp. 496169. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4306384/ [Accessed 15.11.2016].
  8. Al-Habori, M., Raman, A., Lawrence, M., et al. (2001). In vitro effect of fenugreek extracts on intestinal sodium-dependent glucose uptake and hepatic glycogen phosphorylase A. International Journal of Experimental Diabetes Research [online], 2 (2), pp. 91-9. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2478541/ [Accessed 23.11.2016].
  9. Ali, L., Azad Khan, A., Hassan, Z., et al. (1995). Characterization of the hypoglycemic effects of Trigonella foenum graecum seed. Planta Medica [online], 61 (4), pp. 358-60. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7480183 [Accessed 23.11.2016].
  10. Al-Romaiyan, A., King, A., Persaud, S., et al. (2013). A novel extract of Gymnema sylvestre improves glucose tolerance in vivo and stimulates insulin secretion and synthesis in vitro. Phytotherapy Research [online], 27 (7), pp. 1006-11. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22911568 [Accessed 29.11.2016].
  11. Al-Romaiyan, A., Liu, B., Asare-Anane, H., et al. (2010). A novel Gymnema sylvestre extract stimulates insulin secretion from human islets in vivo and in vitro. Phytotherapy Research [online], 24 (9), pp. 1370-6. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20812281 [Accessed 29.11.2016].
  12. Anderson, R., Cheng, N., Bryden, N., et al. (1997). Elevated intakes of supplemental chromium improve glucose and insulin variables in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes [online], 46 (11), pp. 1786-91. Available from: http://diabetes.diabetesjournals.org/content/46/11/1786.short [Accessed 02.06.2016]. 
  13. Anderson, R. (1986). Chromium metabolism and its role in disease process in man. Clinical Physiology and Biochemistry [online], 4 (1), pp. 31-41. Available from: http://europepmc.org/abstract/med/3514054 [Accessed 01.06.2016]. 
  14. Anderson, R. (1998). Chromium, glucose intolerance and diabetes. Journal of the American College of Nutrition [online], 17 (6), pp. 548-55. Available from: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/07315724.1998.10718802 [Accessed 02.06.2016]. 
  15. Anderson, R. (2008a). Chromium and polyphenols from cinnamon improve insulin sensitivity. Proceedings from the Nutrition Society [online], 67 (01), pp. 48-53. Available from: http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayAbstract?fromPage=online&aid=1681080&fileId=s0029665108006010 [Accessed 28.04.2016]. 
  16. Anderson, R. (2008b). Chromium in the prevention and control of diabetes. Diabetes and Metabolism [online], 26 (1), pp. 22. Available from: http://www.em-consulte.com/en/article/79857 [Accessed 02.06.2016]. 
  17. Achrekar, S., Kaklij, G., Pote, M., et al. (1991). Hypoglycemic activity of Eugenia jambolana and Ficus bengalensis: mechanism of action. In Vivo [online], 5 (2), pp. 143-7. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1768783 [Accessed 6.12.2016].
  18. Baldwa, V., Bhandari, C., Pangaria, A., et al. (1977). Clinical trial in patients with diabetes mellitus of an insulin-like compound obtained from plant source. Upsala Journal of Medical Sciences [online], 82 (1), pp. 39-41. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20078273 [Accessed 17.11.2016].
  19. Bano, F., Ikram, H., Akhtar, N. (2014). Neurochemical and behavioral effects of Cinnamomi cassiae (Lauraceae) bark aqueous extract in obese rats. Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences [online], 27 (3), pp. 559-63. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24811817 [Accessed 21.11.2016].
  20. Basch, E., Gabardi, S., Ulbricht, C. (2003). Bitter melon (Momordica charantia): a review of efficacy and safety. American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy [online], 60 (4), pp. 356-9. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12625217 [Accessed 15.11.2016].
  21. Baskaran, K., Kizar Ahamath, B., Radha Shanmugasundaram, K., et al. (1990). Antidiabetic effect of a leaf extract from Gymnema sylvestre in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus patients. Journal of Ethnopharmacology [online], 30 (3), pp. 295-300. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2259217 [Accessed 30.11.2016].
  22. Bhansali, S., Shafiq, N., Pandhi, P., et al. (2013). Effect of a deacyl gymnemic acid on glucose homeostasis & metabolic parameters in a rat model of metabolic syndrome. Indian Journal of Medical Research [online], 137 (6), pp. 1174-9. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3734722/ [Accessed 30.11.2016].
  23. Boden, G., Chen, X., Ruiz, J., et al. (1996). Effects of vanadyl sulfate on carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Metabolism [online], 45 (9), pp. 1130-5. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8781301 [Accessed 8.12.2016].
  24. Bolkent, S., Bolkent, S., Yanardag, R., et al. (2005). Protective effect of vanadyl sulfate on the pancreas of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice [online], 70 (2), pp. 103-9. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16188572 [Accessed 7.12.2016].
  25. Broadhurst, C., Domenico, P. (2006). Clinical Studies on Chromium Picolinate Supplementation in Diabetes Mellitus—A Review. Diabetes Technology and Therapeutics [online], 8 (6), pp. 677-87. Available from: http://online.liebertpub.com/doi/abs/10.1089/dia.2006.8.677?src=recsys [Accessed 28.04.2016]. 
  26. Burnett, A., McKoy, M., Singh, P. (2015). Investigation of the Blood Glucose Lowering Potential of the Jamaican Momordica charantia (Cerasee) Fruit in Sprague-Dawley Rats. West Indian Medical Journal [online], 64 (4), pp. 315-9. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4909060/ [Accessed 16.11.2016].
  27. Cam, M., Faun, J., McNeill, J. (1995). Concentration-dependent glucose-lowering effects of oral vanadyl are maintained following treatment withdrawal in streptozotocin-diabetic rats. Metabolism [online], 44 (3), pp. 332-9. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7885278 [Accessed 8.12.2016].
  28. Capdor, J., Foster, M., Petocz, P., (2013). Zinc and glycemic control: a meta-analysis of randomised placebo controlled supplementation trials in humans. Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology [online], 27 (2), pp. 137-42. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23137858 [Accessed 20.12.2016].
  29. Chaturvedi, A., Bhawani, G., Agarwal, P., et al. (2009). Antidiabetic and antiulcer effects of extract of Eugenia jambolana seed in mild diabetic rats: study on gastric mucosal offensive acid-pepsin secretion. Indian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology [online], 53 (2), pp. 137-46. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20112817 [Accessed 5.12.2016].
  30. Chen, S., Sun, Y., Chen, X. (1997). Effect of jiangtangkang on blood glucose, sensitivity of insulin and blood viscosity in non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus [in Chinese]. Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi, 17, pp. 666–8. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10322847 [Accessed 02.06.2016]. 
  31. Chevassus, H., Gaillard, J., Farret, A., et al. (2010). A fenugreek seed extract selectively reduces spontaneous fat intake in overweight subjects. European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology [online], 66 (5), pp. 449-55. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20020282 [Accessed 21.11.2016].
  32. Chevassus, H., Molinier, N., Costa, F., et al. (2009). A fenugreek seed extract selectively reduces spontaneous fat consumption in healthy volunteers. European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology [online], 65 (12), pp. 1175-8. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19809809 [Accessed 22.11.2016].
  33. Chimienti, F. (2013). Zinc, pancreatic islet cell function and diabetes: new insights into an old story. Nutrition Research Reviews [online], 26 (1), pp. 1-11. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23286442 [Accessed 12.12.2016].
  34. Clouatre, D., Rao, S., Preuss, H. (2011). Bitter melon extracts in diabetic and normal rats favorably influence blood glucose and blood pressure regulation. Journal of Medicinal Food [online], 14 (12), pp. 1496-504. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21861717 [Accessed 15.11.2016].
  35. Cohen, N., Halberstam, M., Shlimovich, P., et al. (1995). Oral vanadyl sulfate improves hepatic and peripheral insulin sensitivity in patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Journal of Clinical Investigation [online], 95 (6), pp. 2501-9. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC295932/ [Accessed 8.12.2016].
  36. Cusi, K., Cukier, S., DeFronzo, R., et al. (2001). Vanadyl sulfate improves hepatic and muscle insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetes. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism [online], 86 (3), pp. 1410-7. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11238540 [Accessed 7.12.2016].
  37. Dai, S., Thompson, K., Vera, E., et al. (1994a). Toxicity studies on one-year treatment of non-diabetic and streptozotocin-diabetic rats with vanadyl sulphate. Pharmacology and Toxicology [online], 75 (5), pp. 265-73. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7870697 [Accessed 8.12.2016].
  38. Dai, S., Thompson, K., McNeill, J. (1994b). One-year treatment of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats with vanadyl sulphate. Pharmacology and Toxicology [online], 74 (2), pp. 101-9. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8190697 [Accessed 8.12.2016].
  39. Davis, P., Yokoyama, W. (2011). Cinnamon intake lowers fasting blood glucose: meta-analysis. Journal of Medicinal Food [online], 14 (9), pp. 884-9. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21480806 [Accessed 20.11.2016].
  40. Dehghani, G., Ahmadi, S., Omrani, G. (1997). Effects of vanadyl sulphate on glucose homeostasis in severe diabetes induced by streptozotocin in rats. Indian Journal of Medical Research [online], 106, pp. 481-5. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9415745 [Accessed 8.12.2016].
  41. Dhanabal, S., Kokate, C., Ramanathan, M., et al. (2006). Hypoglycaemic activity of Pterocarpus marsupium Roxb. Phytotherapy Research [online], 20 (1), pp. 4-8. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16397913 [Accessed 6.12.2016].
  42. Fatani, A., Al-Rejaie, S., Abuohashish, H., et al. (2015). Neuroprotective effects of Gymnema sylvestre on streptozotocin-induced diabetic neuropathy in rats. Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine [online], 9 (5), pp. 1670-1678. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4471764/ [Accessed 29.11.2016].
  43. Fernandes, N., Lagishetty, C., Panda, V., et al. (2007). An experimental evaluation of the antidiabetic and antilipidemic properties of a standardized Momordica charantia fruit extract. BMC Complementary Alternative Medicine [online], 7, pp. 29. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2048984/ [Accessed 17.11.2016].
  44. Flammang, A., Cifone, M., Erexson, G., et al. (2004). Genotoxicity testing of a fenugreek extract. Food and Chemical Toxicology [online], 42 (11), pp. 1769-75. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15350674 [Accessed22.11.2016].
  45. Fuangchan, A., Sonthisombat, P., Seubnukarn, T., et al. (2011). Hypoglycemic effect of bitter melon compared with metformin in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes patients. Journal of Ethnopharmacology [online], 134 (2), pp. 422-8. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21211558 [Accessed 15.11.2016].
  46. Goldfine, A., Patti, M., Zuberi, L. (2000). Metabolic effects of vanadyl sulfate in humans with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus: in vivo and in vitro studies. Metabolism [online], 49 (3), pp. 400-10. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10726921 [Accessed 7.12.2016].
  47. Grover, J., Vats, V., Yadav, S. (2005). Pterocarpus marsupium extract (Vijayasar) prevented the alteration in metabolic patterns induced in the normal rat by feeding an adequate diet containing fructose as sole carbohydrate. Diabetes Obesity and Metabolism [online], 7 (4), pp. 414-20. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15955128 [Acceessed 6.12.2016].
  48. Gupta, A., Gupta, R., Lal, B. (2001). Effect of Trigonella foenum-graecum (fenugreek) seeds on glycaemic control and insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes mellitus: a double blind placebo controlled study. Journal of Association of Physicians of India [online], 49, pp. 1057-61. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11868855[ Accessed 22.11.2016].
  49. Hafizur, R., Kabir, N., Chishti, S. (2011). Modulation of pancreatic β-cells in neonatally streptozotocin-induced type 2 diabetic rats by the ethanolic extract of Momordica charantia fruit pulp. Natural Product Research [online], 25 (4), pp. 353-67. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21328131 [Accessed 16.11.2016].
  50. Halberstam, M., Cohen, N., Shlimovich, P., et al. (1996). Oral vanadyl sulfate improves insulin sensitivity in NIDDM but not in obese nondiabetic subjects. Diabetes [online], 45 (5), pp. 659-66. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8621019 [Accessed 7.12.2016].
  51. Hamza, N., Berke, B., Cheze, C., et al. (2012). Preventive and curative effect of Trigonella foenum-graecum L. seeds in C57BL/6J models of type 2 diabetes induced by high-fat diet. Journal of Ethnopharmacology [online], 142 (2), pp. 516-22. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22633967 [Accessed 22.11.2016].
  52. Huang, L. (2014). Zinc and its transporters, pancreatic β-cells, and insulin metabolism. Vitamines and Hormones [online], 95, pp. 365-90. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24559925 [Accessed 20.12.2016].
  53. Jansen, J., Karges, W., Rink, L. (2009). Zinc and diabetes–clinical links and molecular mechanisms. Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry [online], 20 (6), pp. 399-417. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19442898 [Accessed 14.12.2016].
  54. Jeejeebhoy, K., Chu, R., Marliss, E., et al. (1977). Chromium deficiency, glucose intolerance, and neuropathy reversed by chromium supplementation, in a patient receiving long-term parenteral nutrition. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition [online], 30 (4), pp. 531-8. Available from: http://ajcn.nutrition.org/content/30/4/531?ijkey=d305c5b83cb9627e50935278fd2911f25f344fce&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha [Accessed 02.06.2016]. 
  55. Jia, Q., Liu, X., Wu, X., et al. (2009). Hypoglycemic activity of a polyphenolic oligomer-rich extract of Cinnamomum parthenoxylon bark in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Phytomedicine [online], 16 (8), pp. 744-50. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19464860 [Accessed 21.11.2016].
  56. Joshi, D., Patil, R., Naik, S. (2015). Hydroalcohol extract of Trigonella foenum-graecum seed attenuates markers of inflammation and oxidative stress while improving exocrine function in diabetic rats. Pharmaceutical Biology [online], 53 (2), pp. 201-11. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25339548 [Accessed 21.11.2016].
  57. Kakuda, T., Sakane, I., Takihara, T., et al. (1996). Hypoglycemic effect of extracts from Lagerstroemia speciosa L. leaves in genetically diabetic KK-AY mice.
    Bioscience Biotechnology and Biochemistry [online], 60 (2), pp. 204-8. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9063966 [Accessed 13.11.2016].
  58. Kang, M., Lee, M., Choi, M., et al. (2012). Hypoglycemic activity of Gymnema sylvestre extracts on oxidative stress and antioxidant status in diabetic rats. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry [online], 60 (10), pp. 2517-24. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22360666 [Accessed 29.11.2016].
  59. Kannappan, S., Jayaraman, T., Rajasekar, P., et al. (2006). Cinnamon bark extract improves glucose metabolism and lipid profile in the fructose-fed rat. Singapore Medical Journal [online], 47 (10), pp. 858-63. Available from: https://www.sma.org.sg/smj/4710/4710a4.pdf [Accessed 21.11.2016].
  60. Kannappan, S., Anuradha, C. (2009). Insulin sensitizing actions of fenugreek seed polyphenols, quercetin & metformin in a rat model. Indian Journal of Medical Research [online], 129 (4), pp. 401-8. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19535835 [Accessed 22.11.2016].
  61. Karmaker, S., Saha, T., Sakurai, H. (2008). Antidiabetic activity of the orally effective vanadyl-poly (gamma-glutamic acid) complex in streptozotocin(STZ)-induced type 1 diabetic mice. Journal of Biomaterials Applications [online], 22 (5), pp. 449-64. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17494957 [Accessed 8.12.2016].
  62. Kasetti, R., Rajasekhar, M., Kondeti, V., et al. (2010). Antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic activities of methanol:water (4:1) fraction isolated from aqueous extract of Syzygium alternifolium seeds in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Food and Chemical Toxicology [online], 48 (4), pp. 1078-84. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20122979 [Accessed 5.12.2016].
  63. Keller, A., Ma, J., Kavalier, A., et al. (2011). Saponins from the traditional medicinal plant Momordica charantia stimulate insulin secretion in vitro. Phytomedicine [online], 19 (1), pp. 32-7. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3389550/ [Accessed 17.11.2016].
  64. Kesavanarayanan, K., Sathiya, S., Kalaivani, P., et al. (2013). DIA-2, a polyherbal formulation ameliorates hyperglycemia and protein-oxidation without increasing the body weight in type II diabetic rats. European RevIew for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences [online], 17 (3), pp. 356-69. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23426539 [Accessed 13.11.2016].
  65. Kim, H., Hong, S., Chang, S., et al. (2016). Effects of feeding a diet containing Gymnema sylvestre extract: Attenuating progression of obesity in C57BL/6J mice. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine [online], 9 (5), pp. 437-44. Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1995764516300414 [Accessed 30.11.2016].
  66. Kim, S., Choung, S. (2010). Antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic action of Cinnamomi Cassiae (Cinnamon bark) extract in C57BL/Ks db/db mice. Archives of Pharmacal Research [online], 33 (2), pp. 325-33. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20195835 [Accessed 20.11.2016].
  67. Kim, S., Hyun, S., Choung, S. (2006). Anti-diabetic effect of cinnamon extract on blood glucose in db/db mice. Journal of Ethnopharmacology [online], 104 (1-2), pp. 119-23. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16213119 [Accessed 21.11.2016].
  68. Klein, G., Kim, J., Himmeldirk, K., et al. (2007). Antidiabetes and Anti-obesity Activity of Lagerstroemia speciosa. Evidence Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine [online], 4 (4), pp. 401-7. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2176148/ [Accessed 13.11.2016].
  69. Krishnasamy, G., Muthusamy, K., Chellappan, D., et al. (2016). Antidiabetic, antihyperlipidaemic, and antioxidant activity of Syzygium densiflorum fruits in streptozotocin and nicotinamide-induced diabetic rats. Pharmaceutical Biology [online], 54 (9), pp. 1716-26. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26704340 [Accessed 5.12.2016].
  70. Kumar, P., Bhandari, U. (2016a). Fenugreek Seed Extract Prevents Fat Deposition in Monosodium Glutamate (MSG)-Obese Rats. Drug Research [online], 66 (4), pp. 174-80. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26198036 [Accessed 22.11.2016].
  71. Kumar, P., Venkataranganna, M., Manjunath, K. (2016b). Methanolic leaf extract of Gymnema sylvestre augments glucose uptake and ameliorates insulin resistance by upregulating glucose transporter-4, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma, adiponectin, and leptin levels in vitro. Journal of Intercultural Ethnopharmacology [online], 5 (2), pp. 146-52. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4835989/ [Accessed 23.11.2016].
  72. Kumar, V., Bhandari, U., Tripathi, C., et al. (2013). Anti-obesity effect of Gymnema sylvestre extract on high fat diet-induced obesity in Wistar rats. Drug Research (Stuttgart) [online], 63 (12), pp. 625-32. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23842942 [Accessed 29.11.2016].
  73. Kumar, V., Bhandari, U., Tripathi, C., et al. (2012). Evaluation of antiobesity and cardioprotective effect of Gymnema sylvestre extract in murine model. Indian Journal of Pharmacology [online], 44 (5), pp. 607-13. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3480794/ [Accessed 29.11.2016].
  74. Kumar, S., Mani, U., Mani, I. (2010). An open label study on the supplementation of Gymnema sylvestre in type 2 diabetics. Journal of Dietary Supplements [online], 7 (3), pp. 273-82. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22432517 [Accessed 29.11.2016].
  75. Leatherdale, B., Panesar, R., Singh, G., et al. (1981). Improvement in glucose tolerance due to Momordica charantia (karela). British Medical Journal (Clinical Research Edition) [online], 282 (6279), pp. 1823-4. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1506397/ [Accessed 17.11.2016].
  76. Lehtonen, H., Suomela, J., Tahvonen, R., et al. (2011). Different berries and berry fractions have various but slightly positive effects on the associated variables of metabolic diseases on overweight and obese women. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition [online], 65 (3), pp. 394-401. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21224867 [Accessed 14.11.2016].
  77. Li Y, Zheng M, Zhai X, et al. (2015). Effect of Gymnema sylvestre, citrullus colocynthis and artemisia absinthium on blood glucose and lipid profile in diabetic human. Acta Poloniae Pharmaceutica [online], 72 (5), pp. 981-5. Available from: http://www.ptfarm.pl/pub/File/Acta_Poloniae/2015/5/981.pdf [Accessed 29.11.2016].
  78. Lo, H., Ho, T., Lin, C., et al. (2013). Momordica charantia and its novel polypeptide regulate glucose homeostasis in mice via binding to insulin receptor. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry [online], 61 (10), pp. 2461-8. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23414136 [Accessed 15.11.2016].
  79. Lin, C., Huang, H., Hu, C., et al. (2014). Trace elements, oxidative stress and glycemic control in young people with type 1 diabetes mellitus. Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology [online], 28 (1), pp. 18-22. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24315963 [Accessed 12.12.2016].
  80. Liu, I., Chi, T., Cheng, J. (2001). Decrease of hypothalamic neuropeptide Y gene expression by vanadyl sulfate in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Hormone and Metabolic Research [online], 33 (2), pp. 96-100. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11294500 [Accessed 8.12.2016].
  81. Lu, Z., Jia, Q., Wang, R., et al. (2011). Hypoglycemic activities of A- and B-type procyanidin oligomer-rich extracts from different Cinnamon barks. Phytomedicine [online], 18 (4), pp. 298-302. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20851586 [Accessed 20.11.2016].
  82. Miao, X., Sun, W., Fu, Y. (2013). Zinc homeostasis in the metabolic syndrome and diabetes. Frontiers of Medicine [online], 7 (1), pp. 31-52. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23385610 [Accessed 20.12.2016].
  83. Missaoui, S., Ben Rhouma, K., Yacoubi, M., et al. (2014). Vanadyl sulfate treatment stimulates proliferation and regeneration of beta cells in pancreatic islets. Journal of Diabetes Research [online], 2014, pp. 540242. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4156977/ [Accessed 7.12.2016].
  84. Miura, T., Takagi, S., Ishida, T. (2012). Management of Diabetes and Its Complications with Banaba (Lagerstroemia speciosa L.) and Corosolic Acid. Evidence Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine [online], 2012,pp. :871495. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3468018/ [Accessed 13.11.2016].
  85. Miura, T., Itoh, C., Iwamoto, N., et al. (2001). Hypoglycemic activity of the fruit of the Momordica charantia in type 2 diabetic mice. Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology (Tokyo) [online], 47 (5), pp. 340-4. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11814149 [Accessed 17.11.2016].
  86. Mohamed Sham Shihabudeen, H., Hansi Priscilla, D., Thirumurugan, K. (2011). Cinnamon extract inhibits α-glucosidase activity and dampens postprandial glucose excursion in diabetic rats. Nutrition and Metabolism (London) [online], 8 (1), pp. 46. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3155477/ [Accessed 20.11.2016].
  87. Mohammadi, M., Pirmoradi, L., Mesbah, F., et al. (2014). Trophic actions of oral vanadium and improved glycemia on the pancreatic beta-cell ultrastructure of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Journal of Pancreas [online], 15 (6), pp. 591-6. Available from: http://www.serena.unina.it/index.php/jop/article/view/2855/2964 [Accessed 8.12.2016].
  88. Moorthy, R., Prabhu, K., Murthy, P. (2010). Anti-hyperglycemic compound (GII) from fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum Linn.) seeds, its purification and effect in diabetes mellitus. Indian Journal of Experimental Biology [online], 48 (11), pp 1111-8. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21117451 [Accessed 22.11.2016].
  89. Mowla, A., Alauddin, M., Rahman, M., et al. (2009). Antihyperglycemic effect of Trigonella foenum-graecum (fenugreek) seed extract in alloxan-induced diabetic rats and its use in diabetes mellitus: a brief qualitative phytochemical and acute toxicity test on the extract. African Journal of Traditional Complementary and Alternative Medicines [online], 6 (3), pp. 255-61. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2816457/ [Accessed 22.11.2016].
  90. Mwiti Kibiti, C., Jide Afolayan, A. (2015). The Biochemical Role of Macro and Micro-Minerals in the Management of Diabetes Mellitus and its Associated Complications: A Review. International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research [online], 85 (1-2), pp. 88-103. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26780281 [Accessed 12.12.2016].
  91. Naicker, N., Nagiah, S., Phulukdaree, A., et al. (2016). Trigonella foenum-graecum Seed Extract, 4-Hydroxyisoleucine, and Metformin Stimulate Proximal Insulin Signaling and Increase Expression of Glycogenic Enzymes and GLUT2 in HepG2 Cells. Metabolic Syndrome and Related Disorder [online], 14 (2), pp. 114-20. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26835874 [Accessed 22.11.2016].
  92. Ogawa, Y., Sekita, K., Umemura, T., et al. (2004). [Gymnema sylvestre leaf extract: a 52-week dietary toxicity study in Wistar rats]. Shokuhin Eiseigaku Zasshi [online], 45 (1), pp. 8-18. Available from: https://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/shokueishi/45/1/45_1_8/_pdf [Accessed 23.11.2016].
  93. Ojewole, J., Adewole, S., Olayiwola, G. (2006). Hypoglycaemic and hypotensive effects of Momordica charantia Linn (Cucurbitaceae) whole-plant aqueous extract in rats. Cardiovascular Journal of South Africa [online], 17 (5), pp. 227-32. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17117226 [Accessed 17.11.2016].
  94. Okabayashi, Y., Tani, S., Fujisawa, T., et al. (1990). Effect of Gymnema sylvestre, R.Br. on glucose homeostasis in rats. Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice [online], 9 (2), pp. 143-8. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1695875 [Accessed 30.11.2016].
  95. Park, M., Lee, K., Sung, M. (2005). Effects of dietary mulberry, Korean red ginseng, and banaba on glucose homeostasis in relation to PPAR-alpha, PPAR-gamma, and LPL mRNA expressions. Life Sciences [online], 77 (26), pp. 3344-54. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15979095 [Accessed 13.11.2016].
  96. Pederson, R., Ramanadham, S., Buchan, A., et al. (1989). Long-term effects of vanadyl treatment on streptozocin-induced diabetes in rats. Diabetes [online], 38 (11), pp. 1390-5. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2695373 [Accessed 7.12.2016].
  97. Peng, X., Cheng, K., Ma, J., et al. (2008). Cinnamon bark proanthocyanidins as reactive carbonyl scavengers to prevent the formation of advanced glycation endproducts. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry [online], 56 (6), pp. 1907-11. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18284204 [Accessed 21.11.2016].
  98. Poovitha, S., Parani, M. (2016). In vitro and in vivo α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibiting activities of the protein extracts from two varieties of bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L.). BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine [online], 16, pp. 185. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4959359/ [Accessed 16.11.2016].
  99. Pothuraju, R., Sharma, R., Chagalamarri, J., et al. (2014). A systematic review of Gymnema sylvestre in obesity and diabetes management. Journal of the Science and Food Agriculture [online], 94 (5), pp. 834-40. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24166097 [Accessed 29.11.2016].
  100. Pothuraju, R., Sharma, R., Rather, S., et al. (2016). Comparative evaluation of anti-obesity effect of Aloe vera and Gymnema sylvestre supplementation in high-fat diet fed C57BL/6J mice. Journal of Intercultural Ethnopharmacology [online], 5 (4), pp. 403-407. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5061484/ [Accessed 30.11.2016].
  101. Puri, D., Prabhu, K., Murthy, P. (2012). Antidiabetic Effect of GII Compound Purified from Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum Linn) Seeds in Diabetic Rabbits. Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry [online], 27 (1), pp. 21-7. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3286580/ [Accessed 22.11.2016].
  102. Puri, D., Prabhu, K., Murthy, P. (2002). Mechanism of action of a hypoglycemic principle isolated from fenugreek seeds. Indian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology [online], 46 (4), pp. 457-62. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12683221 [Accessed 22.11.2016].
  103. Ramanadham, S., Mongold, J., Brownsey, R., et al. (1989a). Oral vanadyl sulfate in treatment of diabetes mellitus in rats. American Journal of Physiology [online], 257 (3), pp. 904-11. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2675634 [Accessed 7.12.2016].
  104. Ramanadham, S., Brownsey, R., Cros, G., et al. (1989b). Sustained prevention of myocardial and metabolic abnormalities in diabetic rats following withdrawal from oral vanadyl treatment. Metabolism [online], 38 (10), pp. 1022-8. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2677609 [Accessed 9.12.2016].
  105. Ranasinghe, P., Pigera, S., Galappatthy, P., et al. (2015). Zinc and diabetes mellitus: understanding molecular mechanisms and clinical implications. Daru [online], 23, pp. 44. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4573932/ [Accessed 12.12.2016].
  106. Rao, B., Rao, C. (2001). Hypoglycemic and antihyperglycemic activity of Syzygium alternifolium (Wt.) Walp. seed extracts in normal and diabetic rats. Phytomedicine [online], 8 (2), pp. 88-93. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11315761 [Accessed 5.12.2016].
  107. Ravi, K., Sivagnanam, K., Subramanian, S. (2004). Anti-diabetic activity of Eugenia jambolana seed kernels on streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Journal of Medicinal Food [online], 7 (2), pp. 187-91. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15298766 [Accessed 5.12.2016].
  108. Reddy, R., Latha, P., Vijaya, T., et al. (2012). The saponin-rich fraction of a Gymnema sylvestre R. Br. aqueous leaf extract reduces cafeteria and high-fat diet-induced obesity. Zeitschrift für Naturforschung C [online], 67 (1-2), pp. 39-46. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22486040 [Accessed 30.11.2016].
  109. Ruz, M., Carrasco, F., Rojas, P., et al. (2013). Zinc as a potential coadjuvant in therapy for type 2 diabetes. Food and Nutrition Bulletin [online], 34 (2), pp. 215-21. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23964394 [Accessed 20.12.2016].
  110. Sakurai, H. (2002). A new concept: the use of vanadium complexes in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. Chemical Record [online], 2 (4), pp. 237-48. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12203906 [Accessed 9.12.2016].
  111. Samadder, A., Chakraborty, D., De, A., et al. (2011). Possible signaling cascades involved in attenuation of alloxan-induced oxidative stress and hyperglycemia in mice by ethanolic extract of Syzygium jambolanum: drug-DNA interaction with calf thymus DNA as target. European Journal of Pharmacological Sciences [online], 44 (3), pp. 207-17. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21839831 [Accessed 5.12.2016].
  112. Sanches, J., França, L., Chagas, V. (2016). Polyphenol-Rich Extract of Syzygium cumini Leaf Dually Improves Peripheral Insulin Sensitivity and Pancreatic Islet Function in Monosodium L-Glutamate-Induced Obese Rats. Frontiers in Pharmacology [online], 7, pp. 48. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4785152/ [Accessed 5.12.2016].
  113. Sarkar, S., Pranava, M., Marita, R. (1996). Demonstration of the hypoglycemic action of Momordica charantia in a validated animal model of diabetes. Pharmacology Research [online], 33 (1), pp. 1-4. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8817639 [Accessed 17.11.2016].
  114. Sathishsekar, D., Subramanian, S. (2005a). Beneficial effects of Momordica charantia seeds in the treatment of STZ-induced diabetes in experimental rats. Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin [online], 28 (6), pp. 978-83. Available from: https://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/bpb/28/6/28_6_978/_pdf [Accessed 17.11.2016].
  115. Sathishsekar, D., Subramanian, S. (2005b). Antioxidant properties of Momordica Charantia (bitter gourd) seeds on Streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition [online], 14 (2), pp. 153-8. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15927932 [Accessed 17.11.2016].
  116. Sathya, S., Kokilavani, R., Gurusamy, K. (2008). Hypoglycemic effect of Gymnema sylvestre (retz.,) R.Br leaf in normal and alloxan induced diabetic rats. Ancient Science of Life [online], 28 (2), pp. 12-4. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3336356/ [Accessed 30.11.2016].
  117. Saumya, S., Basha, P. (2011). Antioxidant effect of Lagerstroemia speciosa Pers (banaba) leaf extract in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. Indian Journal of Experimental Biology [online], 49 (2), pp. 125-31. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21428214 [Accessed 13.10.2016].
  118. Sekar, D., Sivagnanam, K., Subramanian, S. (2005). Antidiabetic activity of Momordica charantia seeds on streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Pharmazie [online], 60 (5), pp. 383-7. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15918591 [Accessed 17.11.2016].
  119. Sengupta, S., Mukherjee, A., Goswami, R., et al. (2009). Hypoglycemic activity of the antioxidant saponarin, characterized as alpha-glucosidase inhibitor present in Tinospora cordifolia. Journal of Enzyme Inhibition and Medical Chemistry [online], 24 (3), pp. 684-90. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18951283 [Accessed 7.12.2016].
  120. Shafrir, E., Spielman, S., Nachliel, I., et al. (2001). Treatment of diabetes with vanadium salts: general overview and amelioration of nutritionally induced diabetes in the Psammomys obesus gerbil. Diabetes Metabolism Research and Reviews [online], 17 (1), pp. 55-66. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11241892 [Accessed 8.12.2016].
  121. Shahreen, S., Banik, J., Hafiz, A., et al. (2011). Antihyperglycemic activities of leaves of three edible fruit plants (Averrhoa carambola, Ficus hispida and Syzygium samarangense) of Bangladesh. African Journal of Traditional Complementary Alternative Medicine [online], 9 (2), pp. 287-91. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3746627/ [Accessed 6.12.2016].
  122. Shanmugasundaram, E., Rajeswari, G., Baskaran, K., et al. (1990a). Use of Gymnema sylvestre leaf extract in the control of blood glucose in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Journal of Ethnopharmacology [online], 30 (3), pp. 281-94. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2259216 [Accessed 30.11.2016].
  123. Shanmugasundaram, E., Gopinath, K., Radha Shanmugasundaram, K., et al. (1990b). Possible regeneration of the islets of Langerhans in streptozotocin-diabetic rats given Gymnema sylvestre leaf extracts. Journal of Ethnopharmacology [online], 30 (3), pp. 265-79. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2259215 [Accessed 30.11.2016].
  124. Shanmugasundaram, E., Venkatasubrahmanyam, M., Vijendran, N., et al. (1988). Effect of an isolate from gymnema sylvestre, R. Br. In the control of diabetes mellitus and the associated pathological changes. Ancient Science Life [online], 7 (3-4), pp. 183-94. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3336647/ [Accessed 30.11.2016].
  125. Sharma, A., Bharti, S., Kumar, R., et al. (2012). Syzygium cumini ameliorates insulin resistance and β-cell dysfunction via modulation of PPAR, dyslipidemia, oxidative stress, and TNF-α in type 2 diabetic rats. Journal of Pharmacological Sciences [online], 119 (3), pp. 205-13. Available from: https://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/jphs/119/3/119_11184FP/_pdf [Accessed 5.12.2016]. 
  126. Sharma, B., Balomajumder, C., Roy, P. (2008). Hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects of flavonoid rich extract from Eugenia jambolana seeds on streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Food and Chemical Toxicology [online], 46 (7), pp. 2376-83. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18474411 [Accessed 5.12.2016].
  127. Sharma, S., Nasir, A., Prabhu, K., et al. (2006). Antihyperglycemic effect of the fruit-pulp of Eugenia jambolana in experimental diabetes mellitus. Journal of Ethnopharmacology [online], 104 (3), pp. 367-73. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16386863 [Accessed 05.12.2016].
  128. Shih, C., Lin, C., Lin, W. (2008). Effects of Momordica charantia on insulin resistance and visceral obesity in mice on high-fat diet. Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice [online], 81 (2), pp. 134-43. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18550200 [Accessed 15.11.2016].
  129. Shimizu, K., Iino, A., Nakajima, J., et al. (1997a). Suppression of glucose absorption by some fractions extracted from Gymnema sylvestre leaves. Journal of Veterinary Medical Science [online], 59 (4), pp. 245-51. Available from: https://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/jvms/59/4/59_4_245/_pdf [Accessed 30.11.2016].
  130. Shimizu, K., Ozeki, M., Tanaka, K., et al. (1997b). Suppression of glucose absorption by extracts from the leaves of Gymnema inodorum. Journal of Veterinary Medical Science [online], 59 (9), pp. 753-7. Available from: https://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/jvms/59/9/59_9_753/_pdf [Accessed 30.11.2016].
  131. Singh, N., Gupta, M. (2007a). Regeneration of beta cells in islets of Langerhans of pancreas of alloxan diabetic rats by acetone extract of Momordica charantia (Linn.) (bitter gourd) fruits. Indian Journal of Experimental Biology [online], 45 (12), pp. 1055-62. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18254212 [Accessed 17.11.2016].
  132. Singh, N., Gupta, M. (2007b). Effects of ethanolic extract of Syzygium cumini (Linn) seed powder on pancreatic islets of alloxan diabetic rats. Indian Journal of Experimental Biology [online], 45 (10), pp. 861-7. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17948734 [Accessed 5.12.2016].
  133. Soinio, M., Marniemi, J., Laakso, M., et al. (2007). Serum zinc level and coronary heart disease events in patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care [online], 30 (3), pp. 523-8. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17327315 [Accessed 20.12.2016].
  134. Soveid, M., Dehghani, G., Omrani, G. (2013). Long- term efficacy and safety of vanadium in the treatment of type 1 diabetes. Archives of Iranian Medicine [online], 16 (7), pp. 408-11. Available from: http://www.ams.ac.ir/AIM/NEWPUB/13/16/7/009.pdf [Accessed 7.12.2016].
  135. Stanely Mainzen Prince, P., Kamalakkannan, N., Menon, V. (2003). Syzigium cumini seed extracts reduce tissue damage in diabetic rat brain. Journal of Ethnopharmacology [online], 84 (2-3), pp. 205-9. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12648817 [Accessed 5.12.2016].
  136. Stohs, S., Kaats, G., Preuss, H. (2016). Safety and Efficacy of Banaba-Moringa oleifera-Green Coffee Bean Extracts and Vitamin D3 in a Sustained Release Weight Management Supplement. Phytotherapy Research [online], 30 (4), pp. 681-8. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26871553 [Accessed 13.10.2016].
  137. Stohs, S., Miller, H., Kaats, G. (2012). A review of the efficacy and safety of banaba (Lagerstroemia speciosa L.) and corosolic acid. Phytotherapy Research [online], 26 (3), pp. 317-24. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22095937 [Accessed 13.11.2016].
  138. Sugihara, Y., Nojima, H., Matsuda, H., et al. (2000). Antihyperglycemic effects of gymnemic acid IV, a compound derived from Gymnema sylvestre leaves in streptozotocin-diabetic mice. Journal of Asian Natural Products Research [online], 2 (4), pp. 321-7. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11249615 [Accessed 30.11.2016].
  139. Suzuki, Y., Unno, T., Ushitani, M., et al. (1999). Antiobesity activity of extracts from Lagerstroemia speciosa L. leaves on female KK-Ay mice. Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology (Tokyo) [online], 45 (6), pp. 791-5. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10737232 [Accessed 13.11.2016].
  140. Swaroop, A., Bagchi, M., Kumar, P., et al. (2014). Safety, efficacy and toxicological evaluation of a novel, patented anti-diabetic extract of Trigonella Foenum-Graecum seed extract (Fenfuro). Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods [online], 24 (7), pp. 495-503. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25045923 [Accessed 22.11.2016].
  141. Takikawa, M., Inoue, S., Horio, F., et al. (2010). Dietary anthocyanin-rich bilberry extract ameliorates hyperglycemia and insulin sensitivity via activation of AMP-activated protein kinase in diabetic mice. Journal of Nutrition [online], 140 (3), pp. 527-33. Available from: http://jn.nutrition.org/content/140/3/527.long [Accessed 14.11.2016].
  142. Tanwar, R., Sharma, S., Singh, U., et al. (2011). Antiatherosclerotic Potential of Active Principle Isolated from Eugenia jambolana in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats. Evidence Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine [online], 2011, pp. 127641. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3092151/ [Accessed 6.12.2016].
  143. Tanwar, R., Sharma, S., Singh, U., et al. (2010). Attenuation of renal dysfunction by anti-hyperglycemic compound isolated from fruit pulp of Eugenia jambolana in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Indian Journal of Biochemistry and Biophysics [online], 47 (2), pp. 83-9. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20521620 [Accessed 6.12.2016].
  144. Thompson, K., Lichter, J., LeBel, C., et al. (2009). Vanadium treatment of type 2 diabetes: a view to the future. Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry [online], 103 (4), pp. 554-8. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19162329 [Accessed 8.12.2016].
  145. Tripathi, U., Chandra, D. (2010). Anti-hyperglycemic and anti-oxidative effect of aqueous extract of Momordica charantia pulp and Trigonella foenum graecum seed in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Indian Journal of Biochemistry and Biophysics [online]. 47 (4), pp. 227-33. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21174950 [Accessed 22.11.2016].
  146. Vardatsikos, G., Pandey, N., Srivastava, A. (2013). Insulino-mimetic and anti-diabetic effects of zinc. Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry [online]. 2013 Mar;120:8-17. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23266931 [Accessed 12.12.2016].
  147. Vats, V., Yadav, S., Biswas, N., et al. (2004). Anti-cataract activity of Pterocarpus marsupium bark and Trigonella foenum-graecum seeds extract in alloxan diabetic rats. Journal of Ethnopharmacology [online], 93 (2-3), pp. 289-94. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15234767 [Accessed 22.11.2016].
  148. Vats, V., Grover, J., Rathi, S. (2002). Evaluation of anti-hyperglycemic and hypoglycemic effect of Trigonella foenum-graecum Linn, Ocimum sanctum Linn and Pterocarpus marsupium Linn in normal and alloxanized diabetic rats. Journal of Ethnopharmacology [online], 79 (1), pp. 95-100. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11744301 [Accessed 23.11.2016].
  149. Venkatesan, N., Avidan, A., Davidson, M. (1991). Antidiabetic action of vanadyl in rats independent of in vivo insulin-receptor kinase activity. Diabetes [online], 40 (4), pp. 492-8. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1849104 [Accessed 8.12.2016].
  150. Verspohl, E., Bauer, K., Neddermann, E. (2005). Antidiabetic effect of Cinnamomum cassia and Cinnamomum zeylanicum in vivo and in vitro. Phytotherapy Research [online], 19 (3), pp. 203-6. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15934022 [Accessed 21.11.2016].
  151. Vijayakumar, M., Bhat, M. (2008). Hypoglycemic effect of a novel dialysed fenugreek seeds extract is sustainable and is mediated, in part, by the activation of hepatic enzymes. Phytotherapy Research [online], 22 (4), pp. 500-5. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18338783 [Accessed 22.11.2016].
  152. Vijayakumar, M., Singh, S., Chhipa, R., et al. (2005). The hypoglycaemic activity of fenugreek seed extract is mediated through the stimulation of an insulin signalling pathway. British Journal of Pharmacology [online], 146 (1), pp. 41-8. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1576255/ [Accessed 22.11.2016].
  153. Viktorínová, A., Toserová, E., Krizko, M., et al. (2009). Altered metabolism of copper, zinc, and magnesium is associated with increased levels of glycated hemoglobin in patients with diabetes mellitus. Metabolism [online], 58 (10), pp. 1477-82. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19592053 [Accessed 12.12.2016].
  154. Virdi, J., Sivakami, S., Shahani, S., et al. (2003). Antihyperglycemic effects of three extracts from Momordica charantia. Journal of Ethnopharmacology [online], 88 (1), pp. 107-11. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12902059 [Accessed 17.11.2016].
  155. Wang, Y., Dawid, C., Kottra, G., et al. (2014). Gymnemic acids inhibit sodium-dependent glucose transporter 1. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry [online], 62 (25), pp. 5925-31. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24856809 [Accessed 29.11.2016].
  156. Xue, W., Li, X., Zhang, J., et al. (2007). Effect of Trigonella foenum-graecum (fenugreek) extract on blood glucose, blood lipid and hemorheological properties in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition [online], 16, pp. 422-6. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17392143 [Accessed 22.11.2016].
  157. Xue, W., Lei, J., Li, X., et al. (2011). Trigonella foenum graecum seed extract protects kidney function and morphology in diabetic rats via its antioxidant activity. Nutrition Research [online], 31 (7), pp. 555-62. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21840472 [Accessed 22.11.2016].
  158. Yadav, M., Lavania, A., Tomar, R., et al. (2010). Complementary and comparative study on hypoglycemic and antihyperglycemic activity of various extracts of Eugenia jambolana seed, Momordica charantia fruits, Gymnema sylvestre, and Trigonella foenum graecum seeds in rats. Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology [online], 160 (8), pp. 2388-400. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19904502 [Accessed 22.11.2016].
  159. Yanardag, R., Tunali, S. (2006). Vanadyl sulfate administration protects the streptozotocin-induced oxidative damage to brain tissue in rats. Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry [online], 286 (1-2), pp. 153-9. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16532257 [Accessed 7.12.2016].
  160. Yanardag, R., Bolkent, S., Karabulut-Bulan, O., et al. (2003). Effects of vanadyl sulfate on kidney in experimental diabetes. Biological Trace Element Research [online], 95 (1), pp. 73-85. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14555801 [Accessed 7.12.2016].
  161. Yibchok-anun, S., Adisakwattana, S., Yao, C., et al. (2006). Slow acting protein extract from fruit pulp of Momordica charantia with insulin secretagogue and insulinomimetic activities. Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin [online], 29 (6), pp. 1126-31. Available from: https://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/bpb/29/6/29_6_1126/_pdf [Accessed 17.11.2016].


This research was sponsored by GLOBESITY FOUNDATION (nonprofit organization) and managed by Don Juravin. GLOBESITY Bootcamp for the obese is part of GLOBESITY FOUNDATION which helps obese with 70 to 400 lbs excess fat to adopt a healthy lifestyle and thereby achieve a healthy weight.

Would love your thoughts, please comment.x