Cinnamon Bark Extract
Cinnamon bark extract lowers fasting (by ~40%) and postprandial blood glucose (by ~50% to 75%) through inhibition of alpha-glucosidase and amylase, activation of Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) and increase of serotonin in the brain.
Cinnamon Bark Extract Effects On Diabetes
- Cinnamon bark extract lowers fasting blood glucose (by ~0.5 mmol/L) in individuals with type 2 diabetes or prediabetes (Davis 2011).
- Cinnamon bark extract lowers postprandial glucose (by 52% to 78%) (Mohamed Sham Shihabudeen 2011).
- Cinnamon bark extract lowers blood glucose and lipid levels in rats (Kannappan 2006, Verspohl 2005).
- Cinnamon bark extract promotes weight loss and lowers fasting blood glucose (by 38.7%) and postprandial blood glucose (Jia 2009).
Fenugreek Seed Extract
Fenugreek seed extract (1 g daily) decreases fasting (by 19%) and postprandial (by 14%) blood glucose, insulin resistance (by 19%), and daily fat consumption (by 13% to 17%) through enhancement of insulin secretion, function and sensitivity. The effects are less pronounced in normoglycemic conditions, avoiding the complication of hypoglycemia.
Fenugreek Seed Extract Effects On Diabetes
- Fenugreek seed extract (aka Trigonella foenum-graecum Linn) (1 g daily for 2 months) decreases fasting blood glucose (by 19%), postprandial glucose (by 14%), insulin resistance (by 19%), and serum triglycerides in diabetic individuals (Gupta 2001).
- Fenugreek seed extract decreases daily fat consumption (expressed as the ratio fat reported energy intake/total energy expenditure) by 13.3% and insulin/glucose ratio by 16% without changing body weight in overweight individuals in a randomized controlled double-blinded study (Chevassus 2010).
- Fenugreek seed extract (1176mg daily for 2 weeks) decreases daily fat consumption (by 17.3%) and total energy intake (by 11.7%) without changing body weight in overweight individuals in a randomized controlled double-blinded study (Chevassus 2009).
- Fenugreek seed extract lowers plasma glucose, insulin, triglycerides and insulin resistance (by 29%, 58%, 61%, and 75% in non-diabetic and 26%, 48%, 71%, and 50% in diabetic mice, respectively) (Hamza 2012).
- Fenugreek seed extract lowers blood glucose levels (by 18.5% in normal and 40% in diabetic rats) (Vats 2002).
- Fenugreek seed extract, either alone or in combination with glimepiride (an antidiabetic drug) reduces plasma glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), liver glucose transport, proinflammatory cytokines, pancreatic enzymes and restored depleted glycogen (in muscle and liver) in diabetic mice and rabbits (Joshi 2015, Puri 2012).
- Fenugreek seed extract decreases blood glucose in diabetic mice compared to the antidiabetic drugs insulin, glimepiride, and glipizide (Swaroop 2014, Mowla 2009, Xue 2007).
- Fenugreek seed extract improves glucose tolerance without reducing fasting blood glucose in prediabetic rabbits and reduces glucose tolerance and fasting blood glucose in diabetic animals, suggesting the lack of hypoglycemia in risk in near-normal animals, and the effects are superior to the antidiabetic drug tolbutamide (Moorthy 2010, Ali 1995).
- The combination of Fenugreek seed extract and a low dose of glimepiride shows antihyperglycemic activities without creating severe hypoglycemia in rats, suggesting it can be used as complementary medicine to treat the diabetic population by significantly reducing the dose of standard drugs (Yadav 2010).
Gymnema Sylvestre Leaf Extract
Gymnema sylvestre leaf extract (500mg once to twice daily) decreases blood glucose (by 37%), HbA1c, body weight, and food intake and increases insulin levels. It enhances insulin secretion and inhibits glucose uptake by intestinal cells.
Gymnema Sylvestre Leaf Extract Effects On Diabetes
- Gymnema Sylvestre leaf extract has antiobesity and antidiabetic properties, decreases body weight, and inhibits glucose absorption based on the results of a systematic review (Puthuraju 2014).
- Gymnema Sylvestre leaf extract (500mg twice daily) reduces glucose by 37%, triglycerides by 5%, cholesterol by 13%, and low-density lipoproteins (LDL) by 19% in diabetic individuals (Li 2015).
- Gymnema Sylvestre (500mg daily for 3 months) reduces fasting and postprandial blood glucose, glycated hemoglobin, polyphagia, and fatigue in diabetic individuals (Kumar 2010).
- Gymnema Sylvestre (400mg daily for 18 to 20 months) supplemented with the conventional oral drugs reduces blood glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin and helps to decrease the dosage or even stop the conventional drug (Baskaran 1990).
- Gymnema Sylvestre (1 g daily for 2 months) increases insulin and C-peptide and decreases fasting and postprandial blood glucose (Al-Romaiyan 2010).
- The combination of Gymnema Sylvestre leaf extract and a low dose of glimepiride shows antihyperglycemic activities without creating severe hypoglycemia in rats, suggesting it can be used as complementary medicine to treat the diabetic population by significantly reducing the dose of standard drugs (Yadav 2010).
- Gymnema Sylvestre reduces serum lipids, insulin, glucose, apolipoprotein B, arterial blood pressure, body weight, and body mass index, and organ weights and increases the HDL-cholesterol, apolipoprotein A1 and antioxidant enzymes levels in liver tissue in rats. It also decreases leptin, resulting in satiety and decreased food intake (Kim 2016, Pothuraju 2016, Kumar 2013, Bhansali 2013, Kumar 2012, Reddy 2012).
- Gymnema Sylvestre reduces blood glucose and has antioxidant activity in diabetic rats (Kang 2012, Okabayashi 1990).
Bitter Melon Extract
Bitter melon extract (Momordica charantia) has antidiabetic benefits as they enhance insulin secretion and its effects at the receptor, reduce glucose absorption from the intestine, and increase glucose utilization at muscles and liver. Similar to metformin and acarbose, they improve hyperglycemia (by ~65%) and hemoglobin A1c and prevent and reverse beta-cell destruction in the pancreas. The effects are less pronounced in normoglycemic conditions, avoiding the complication of hypoglycemia.
Bitter Melon Extract Effects On Diabetes
- Bitter melon (Momordica charantia) is a popular fruit used for the treatment of diabetes and related conditions amongst the indigenous populations of Asia, South America, India, and East Africa.
- The Bitter Melon extract has potential therapeutic benefits in diabetes and obesity-related metabolic dysfunction both in experimental animals and humans (Alam 2015).
- Bitter melon extract (2000 mg daily) reduces fructosamine levels after 4 weeks (a measure of hypoglycemic potential) in diabetic individuals (Fuangchan 2011).
- Bitter melon extract decreases high-fat diet-induced hyperglycemia, hyperleptinemia, blood HbA1c, free fatty acids, and white adipose tissue, and visceral fat weight in mice (Shih 2008, Fernandes 2007).
- Bitter melon extract normalized the structural abnormalities of peripheral nerves in diabetic mice (Ahmed 2004).
- The Bitter Melon extract reduces blood sugar in non-diabetic rats for 4 hours without inducing hypoglycemia (unlike common antidiabetic drugs in which hypoglycemia is common) (Clouatre 2011, Sekar 2005).
- Bitter melon extract decreases glucose by 63% to 67% in diabetic rats (comparable to the antidiabetic drug metformin). It also lowers blood pressure through an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibiting activity (Clouatre 2011, Ojewole 2006).
- Bitter melon extract reduces fasting blood glucose by 48% (comparable to the antidiabetic drug glibenclamide) (Virdi 2003).
- Bitter melon extract improves glucose tolerance in diabetic mice (Leatherdale 1981).
- Bitter melon extract not only decreases blood glucose and increases serum insulin levels in diabetic rats, but also alleviates the pancreatic damage and increases the islet size , number of β-cells (to almost double), and insulin granules in β-cells (to the level of non-diabetic animals), resulting in renewal and recovery of pancreatic β-cells (Abdollahi 2011, Hafizur 2011, Singh 2007a, Ahmed 1998).
- Bitter melon extract decreases oxidative stress in pancreatic beta cells and liver and renal cells of diabetic rats, leading to decreased cell injury (Sathishsekar 2005a, Sathishsekar 2005b).
- Bitter melon extract not only controls blood glucose levels, but also have antioxidant potential to protect vital organs such as heart and kidney against damage caused due to diabetes induced oxidative stress (Tripathi 2010).
- The combination of Bitter melon extract and a low dose of glimepiride shows antihyperglycemic activities without creating severe hypoglycemia in rats, suggesting it can be used as a complementary medicine to treat the diabetic population by significantly reducing dose of standard drugs (Yadav 2010).
Bilberry Fruit Extract
Bilberry fruit extract has been shown to reduce blood glucose, increase insulin sensitivity, and decrease weight (by ~0.5 lbs per month).
Bilberry Fruit Extract Effects On Diabetes
- The active ingredients of Bilberry fruit (aka Vaccinium myrtillus L.) are anthocyanins.
- Bilberry fruit extract consumption for 33 to 35 days decreases waist circumference (by 1.2 cm) and weight (0.2 kg) in humans (Lehtonen 2011).
Bilberry fruit extract ameliorates hyperglycemia and insulin sensitivity via activation of a specific protein kinase (AMPK) in white adipose tissue, skeletal muscle, and the liver of diabetic mice (Takikawa 2010).
Jambolan Fruit Extract
Jambolan fruit extract decreases body weight and fasting blood glucose (by 38% to 66%) and increases plasma insulin (by 16% to 26%) in diabetic animals. It also improves liver and kidney function in diabetics. It exerts its effects through the enhancement of insulin secretion and the regeneration of pancreas cells.
Jambolan Fruit Extract Effects On Diabetes
- Jambolan fruit extract (aka Eugenia jambolana and Syzygium cumini L.) decreases fasting blood glucose by 21% to 24% after a single dose and 38% to 48% after 1 to 2 weeks and increases plasma insulin by 24% to 26% in diabetic rabbits (Sharma 2006, Akhtar 2011).
- Jambolan fruit extract increases insulin release (by 16%) and HDL (by 21% to 34%) and decreases LDL (by 27% to 29%) and triglycerides (by 35% to 37%) in diabetic rats (Sharma 2008).
- Jambolan fruit extract decreases blood glucose (by 66%), glycosylated hemoglobin (by 34%), urea (by 47%), total cholesterol (by 36%) and triglycerides (by 27%) and increases high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (by 104%) in diabetic mice (Krishnasamy 2016).
- Jambolan fruit extract decreases blood glucose by 59% to 83% after a single dose and decreases blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, total cholesterol, triglycerides, liver enzymes, urea and creatinin and increases plasma insulin in diabetic mice after chronic use and the effects are more prominent than glibenclamide (Shahreen 2011, Kasetti 2010, Ravi 2004).
- Jambolan fruit extract improves fasting blood glucose, body weight, blood urea and creatinine levels and microalbuminuria (Tanwar 2010).
- Jambolan fruit extract decreases biomarkers for oxidative stress, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and increases insulin and glucose transporters (GLUT2) in hyperglycemic mice (Samadder 2011).
- Jambolan fruit extract decreases blood glucose in diabetic rats (Rao 2001) and the effects last for 15 days after cessation of the drug (Singh 2007b).
- The combination of Jambolan fruit extract and a low dose of glimepiride shows antihyperglycemic activities without creating severe hypoglycemia in rats, suggesting it can be used as a complementary medicine to treat the diabetic population by significantly reducing dose of standard drugs (Yadav 2010).
Pterocarpus Marsupium Bark Extract
Pterocarpus marsupium bark extract decreases blood glucose and insulin peaks, which may be helpful in control of cravings.
Pterocarpus Marsupium Bark Extract Effects On Diabetes
- Pterocarpus marsupium bark extract reduces blood glucose and hyperinsulinemia in diabetic rats after 1 month (Grover 2005).
- Pterocarpus marsupium bark extract reduces postprandial blood glucose (by 15.2%) and blood glucose level after 3 weeks of consumption (by 58%) in diabetic rats (Vats 2002).
Pterocarpus marsupium bark extract reduces plasma glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, alkaline phosphatase, SGOT and SGPT in diabetic rats (Dhanabal 2006).
Tinospora Cordifolia Leaf Extract
Tinospora cordifolia leaf extract decreases blood glucose through alpha-glucosidase inhibition.
Tinospora cordifolia leaf extract decreases blood glucose through its alpha-glucosidase inhibitor activity similar to the antidiabetic drug acarbose (Sengupta 2009).
Banaba Leaf Extract
Banaba leaf extract and its active ingredients (Penta-O-galloyl-glucopyranose (PGG), Lagerstroemia speciosa L. and corosolic acid) exert hypoglycemic (glucose lowering) effects through various mechanisms, including enhanced cellular uptake of glucose, impaired hydrolysis of sucrose and starches, decreased gluconeogenesis and the regulation of lipid metabolism, in humans and diabetic animals.
Banaba Leaf Extract Effects On Diabetes
- The active ingredients of Banaba leaf, a southeast Asian tree, with antidiabetic activity are Penta-O-galloyl-glucopyranose (PGG), Lagerstroemia speciosa L. and corosolic acid.
- Banaba leaf extract exerts beneficial effects on various aspects of glucose and lipid metabolism including enhanced cellular uptake of glucose, impaired hydrolysis of sucrose and starches, decreased gluconeogenesis and the regulation of lipid metabolism (Stohs 2012).
- Banaba leaf tract exhibits an insulin-like glucose transport inducing activity and anti-adipogenic properties. The combination of glucose uptake and anti-adipogenesis activity is not found in the current insulin mimetic drugs and indicates a great therapeutic potential of Banaba leaf extract (Klein 2007).
- Banaba leaf extract decreases blood glucose levels within 60 minutes in human subjects (Miura 2012).
- Banaba leaf extract in combination with green coffee bean and Moringa oleifera leaf extracts reduces fat mass and increases fat free mass and improves body composition index (Stohs 2016).
- Banaba leaf extract decreases plasma and urinary glucose and serum insulin levels in rats (Kakuda 1996).
- Banana leaf extract in combination with garlic extract produces a synergistic and dose dependent increase in glucose uptake in adipocytes and also inhibits sorbitol accumulation and protein glycation (Kesavanarayanan 2012).
- Banana leaf extract in combination with garlic extract restores the glucose and lipid level to near normal level without gain in body weight, which is the most commonly encountered side effect with the use of conventional antidiabetic agents (Kesavanarayanan 2012).
- Banaba leaf extract decreases blood glucose, inhibits lipid peroxidation and neutralizes reactive oxygen species and free radicals in diabetic mice (Saumya 2011).
- Banaba leaf extract decreases weight gain, adipose tissue weight and hemoglobin A1C (HbA1c) in mice (Suzuki 1999).
Banaba leaf extract reduces blood glucose, insulin, HbA1c and triglyceride levels in study animals (Park 2005).
Zinc reduces fasting glucose and HbA1c in diabetic individuals as it enhances insulin synthesis, secretion and activity, facilitates glucose catabolism, and modulates glucose metabolizing enzymes in the gastrointestinal tract.
Zinc Effects On Diabetes
- Zinc supplementation reduces fasting glucose and HbA1c in diabetic individuals (Capdor 2013, Ruz 2013).
- Lower serum zinc levels are associated with higher HbA1c levels and poorer diabetes control in diabetic individuals (Lin 2014, Viktorinova 2009).
- Zinc supplementation helps in the prevention and treatment of both types of diabetes, including complications of the disease (Chimienti 2013, Jansen 2009).
- Zinc supplementation help to prevent diabetes and diabetic complications, as chronic low intake of zinc is associated with the increased risk of diabetes (Miao 2013).
- Zinc supplementation ameliorates glycemic control in type 1 and 2 diabetes (Jansen 2009).
Chromium decreases glucose (by 1.8mmol/l) and HbA1C (by 2.1%), and improves insulin sensitivity in a dose-dependant manner. Chromium has been documented to reverse severe glucose intolerance and diabetic neuropathy.
Chromium Effects On Diabetes
- Chromium decreases HbA1c (from 8.5% to 6.6%), fasting glucose (by 1.7mmol/l) and two-hour glucose (by 1.8mmol/l) after 2 to 4 months supplementation (Anderson 1997).
- Chromium (200μg) increases insulin sensitivity in individuals with type 1 or 2 diabetes and also permits reductions in dosages of insulin and/or oral antidiabetic drugs after just 10 days (Chen 1997).
- Chromium improves glucose, insulin, and HbA1C in a dose-dependant manner (Anderson 2008a, 1998). The mechanism of action involves increased insulin binding, increased insulin receptor number, and increased insulin receptor phosphorylation (Anderson 1998).
- Chromium improves glycemic control and decreases insulin, cholesterol, and triglyceride levels (Broadhurst 2006). Improved glycemic control makes it easier for diabetics to control their cravings, as well as maintain or reduce weight.
Vanadyl sulfate decreases blood glucose (by 20%) and food intake through the preservation of insulin secretion, reduction in hepatic glucose production, enhanced insulin sensitivity, pancreatic beta-cell regeneration and improved muscle glucose uptake. It helps to decrease insulin dose in diabetics and the effects continue after drug cessation.
Vanadyl Sulfate Effects On Diabetes
- Vanadyl sulfate (100mg daily for 3 weeks) decreases fasting plasma glucose (by 1.7 mmol/l) and HbA1c and increases insulin sensitivity (by 82%) in diabetic individuals (Halberstam 1996).
- Vanadyl sulfate (150mg daily for 6 weeks) decreases fasting plasma glucose (by 20%), HbA1c (by 6%), total cholesterol (by 9%) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (by 8.5%) and increases insulin-mediated glucose disposal (by 19%) in diabetic individuals (Cusi 2001, Goldfine 2000).
- Vanadyl sulfate (100mg daily for 3 weeks) decreases fasting plasma glucose (from 210 mg/dl to 181 mg/dl) and HbA1c (from 9.6 to 8.8) (Cohen 1995).
- Vanadyl sulfate (50 mg twice daily for 1 month) decreases fasting glucose by 20% (from 9.3 mmol/L to 7.4), with preserved benefits for 1 month after cessation of the drug (Boden 1996).
- Vanadyl sulfate decreases blood glucose levels, HbA1c, hyperphagia and polydipsia, restores insulinemia and improves insulin sensitivity in diabetic animals (Missaoui 2014, Karmaker 2008).
- Vanadyl sulfate coadministration with insulin in diabetic rats results in decrease of insulin dose to 8% of initial dose) (Dehghani 1997).
- Vanadyl sulfate decreases hypothalamic neuropeptide Y in diabetic but not normal mice, decreasing food intake (Liu 2001).
- Vanadyl sulfate decreases weight, plasma glucose, triglyceride, cholesterol and food and water intake in diabetic rats (Venkatesan 1991).
- Vanadyl sulfate beneficial effects on glucose homeostasis lasts long, even after cessation of drug use in rats (Cam 1995, Dai 1994b, Pederson 1989, Ramanadham 1989b).
- Vanadyl sulfate is effective not only in treating diabetes in animals, but also in preventing diabetes onset (Sakurai 2002).